Globalization and Deglobalization

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    • 00:11

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA: Hello.My name is Jessica Srikantia.I'm an assistant professor in the School of Policy,Government and International Affairsin the program on organization, development and knowledgemanagement at George Mason University.This tutorial is titled Globalizationand Deglobalization.In this tutorial, I will identify globalizationand deglobalization world views and show

    • 00:32

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: that these contrasting visions result from how globalizationaffects people differentially.Learning objectives include understanding globalizationfrom divergent perspectives.I will be covering the following key points--dominant narratives of globalizationrepresent benefits and ignore its inherent violence,key concepts of globalization have different meanings

    • 00:54

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: depending on one's perspective, deglobalizationresponds to the violence of globalization with a new visionand values, and recognizing the violence of globalizationis vital to appropriate understanding and responses.This is important.Because when we see the intrinsic shadowside of globalization, especiallyat systematic violence, we can understand

    • 01:15

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: events that otherwise seem either inexplicableor are prone to simplistic divisive inaccurateinterpretations and responses.Holistic understanding supports appropriate responsesand authentic resolutions.The dominant narratives of globalization

    • 01:35

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: represent benefits from globalizationas if these were universal and ignore the violenceinherent in globalization.Common narratives of globalizationinclude that it increases worldwide interconnectednessand interdependence, that it involvesworldwide spread of technologies and homogenization of cultures,and that it creates increasingly supranational rules of the game

    • 01:59

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: for trade and transactions.However, there's many things left out of this picture,especially that globalization involves systematic advantagesto some and harms to others.For this reason, our current system and modelof globalization has been called corporate-led globalization.In this model, globalization privileges

    • 02:20

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: investment and property rights over human and communityrights.It privileges large scale over human scale.And it advantages powerful interests, especiallyfinancial interests.So for example, the global systemenables outside interests, including investorsand corporations, to expropriate communities, resourcesand undermine their ecosystems against their will.

    • 02:41

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: Human rights and indigenous rights provisions are routinelysubverted with impunity.Examples include free trade agreements,which privilege nonresident investorsover local communities.And to give one example, there areprovisions that enable corporations to sue governmentswhen they actually manage to protect their citizens

    • 03:05

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: and prevent environmental damage.So for example, Pacific Rim has sued El Salvadorin a special court under the World Trade Organizationfor a loss of projected future profits whenEl Salvador managed to protect its environmentand a major water source for the nation.Other examples include in the IMF and World Bank,

    • 03:27

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: they privilege global creditors, corporations and local elitesat the expense of ordinary citizens.So for example, mega projects are oftencreated that harm the local residents,don't provide any benefits and saddle the country with debtthat can then be used to open the country to foreign controland privatization.In the UN and the Organization of American States,

    • 03:48

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: the general assemblies are generally more powerfulthan the human rights bodies.And this can be seen in the Belo Monte dam in the Amazon, whereBrazil was sanctioned for illegally,against international treaties, proceeding with the Belo Montedam, which is going to fundamentallyharm and undermine many indigenous nations

    • 04:09

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: that are living along the Xingu river.And yet, despite sanctions by the Inter-American Commissionon Human Rights, Brazil was able to threatenthe court and the commission with withdrawing its supportfrom the general body.And the court and the commission became toothlessand backed down.

    • 04:30

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: So it turns out that these system design issues are notjust an accident.Systematic violence is inherent in globalization.Because it turns out, as Downey, Bonds and Clark showedin an article in 2010 in Organization and Environment,that armed violence is actually essential to making adequateresources available to the global economy.

    • 04:51

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: [Armed violence is essential to making adequate resourcesavailable to So our current global system of globalcapitalism cannot function at its current scale withoutresorting to armed violence.Some of this can be seen in statisticssuch as that the United States is less than 5%of world population and yet uses to about 25%of world fossil fuel resources and that the US military budget

    • 05:14

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: is about 40% of the entire world military spendingand more than 1/2 of US federal discretionary spending.Along with the supposedly legitimate actors,such as states and corporations, engage in and benefitfrom generating violence.So there are many mechanisms for dispossession

    • 05:35

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: of local, sustainable communities and others.There is armed violence, which can be covert or overt.It can take the form of wars, coups, drug wars,and the fostering of civil wars, the use of law,where law can be used to create rules that advantage

    • 05:57

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: large scale interests and powerful interests,corporations and investors over local communities.And law can be applied selectively.So laws that protect communities canbe sidelined while the laws protecting investor rightsand guarantees can be enforced with alacrity.

    • 06:22

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: Again, backed by law and force, ultimately, debtcan be used as a way of forcing nationsto transform their priorities and to open uptheir resources to foreign investors and corporations.Bureaucracy can be used as way of fast tracking some aspectsand slowing down others, for example,

    • 06:46

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: providing permits quickly to multinational corporationswhile slowing down recognition of autonomous communitycouncils in Colombia.And propaganda can be used to change what people valueand to sell people wars and various other ideas,products, actions.

    • 07:08

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: So the forms of dispossession that come along with theseare land expropriation, destructionof ecosystems, transformations of culturein ways that undermine the culture's capacityto have complete cycles and be sustainable and selfsufficient, privatization of seed, water and other goods.And in fact, privatization of seed in Indiacaused several thousand farmer suicides.

    • 07:31

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: Creation of chaos and insecurity,which often results in people having to leave their land,again freeing up land for expropriationand various other routes to dependency and/or displacement.So key concepts of globalization have traditionally

    • 07:53

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: been presented from only one vantage point, a vantagepoint that reinforces the dominant view.Here we want to look at how these concepts lookfrom divergent perspectives.I'm going to cover four different conceptsof globalization-- poverty, gross domestic product, or GDP,

    • 08:15

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: debt and money, and multilateral trade agreements.In the case of poverty, definitionsof poverty that have become currentunder the paradigm of development and globalizationconfuse two very different realities.Sustainable traditional communitiesare called poor when in fact they are not poor but abundant.

    • 08:38

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: They live lives of material clarity and sufficiencywithin the resources that are around them.So they can be autonomous and fulfill their needs locallywithout dependencies.Poverty, real poverty, is what happens when people have beendispossessed in one way or anotherand are no longer able to function autonomously,

    • 08:60

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: sufficiently and in ways that fulfill all their basic needsand requirements.This can be seen, for example, in the measurement of povertythat equates poverty with people making less than $1 a day.So if we can imagine a sustainable autonomouscommunity that lives off of the resources around it,

    • 09:22

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: it doesn't actually need to participatein a global monetary economy but can live fullywithin its own resources.That community would actually make zero dollars a dayand would, under this definition,count as very poor when in fact many communities existaround the world that live exactly this wayand experience great abundance and great valuing

    • 09:45

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: of their way of life.If we take that definition and then imagine that a corporationcomes in, engages in large scale mining,pollutes the environment, pollutes the river,makes it impossible for the community to drink their water,they have to buy water, they have to buy food fromthe outside, in order to pay for these things in the globaleconomy, they need to get a job at a factory for $1.50 a day.

    • 10:08

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: Suddenly under this definition of poverty,they have improved their condition.But I think it's clear that in fact, in real terms,they have significantly been negatively impacted.And so this definition of poverty hides these realities,hides the violence that goes on in destabilizing

    • 10:29

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: these types of communities and then presentsmore globalization as the path to uplift.Once we understand this perspective,rather than trying to further, quote unquote,"help or aide these communities" in the same paradigm thatcaused the problems, we can instead stop making them needy.

    • 10:54

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: So poverty can also be understoodfrom different dimensions.In globalization, poverty is onlyunderstood in monetary terms.But there's also another kind of poverty,the poverty of the rich, the povertyof when we become focused on ever increasing scarcityregardless of how much we have.

    • 11:16

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: Rahnema, in his chapter on poverty and the developmentdictionary, from 2010 describes this kind of poverty.And there's also a pain inherent in livinglives dependant on systems that are wreaking destructionon others.GDP is another example of the concept in globalizationthat functions analogously to the notion of poverty

    • 11:36

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: and the definitions of poverty.So if we think about what is it that GDP actually registersas a benefit, it turns out that GDPregisters any transactions that run through the moneyeconomy as a gain.And things that are taken care of outside of the money economy

    • 11:57

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: are counted as a loss of potential revenue, lossof potential monetary transactions.So under this definition, a traditional sustainablecommunity that does not need to experience transactionsin the money economy would be considered as not contributing

    • 12:20

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: to GDP, whereas once they had been completely destabilizedand have to buy everything through the money economy,then they become star performers in GDP.So this perspective also has been articulatedby Halstead and Cobb in The Need for NewMeasurements of Progress in The Post Development Reader.As you can see, GDP and well-being

    • 12:42

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: are actually not the same thing.And yet in the globalization perspective,GDP is taken to stand in for well-being.And then many misguided priorities and actions follow.Debt and money are another example.So when we look at how money is created,we can see from Michael Rowbotham's book,

    • 13:04

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: 1998, The Grip of Death, that moneyis created as debt out of nothingand that this is a capacity that we give to, for example,private banks to create this money.That means that in order to repay this debt,we need actually an exponentially growing economy

    • 13:27

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: because the interest has not been created as the debt.And so in order to just sustain our monetary system,we need exponential growth.So we have a monetary system that is fundamentallymisaligned with goals of sustainability on the planet.In addition, debt becomes a vehicle

    • 13:50

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: for expropriation and control at the national level as well asother smaller levels.And this has been outlined by John Perkins,for example, in The Secret History of the American Empireand many other books that talk about the waysin which country debt has been used for, for example,privatization and structural adjustment.

    • 14:11

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: Multilateral trade agreements are the final example.And as we've seen in the case of El Salvador and the Pacific RimCorporation, these promote the financial gainfor the few over the holistic well-being of the many.They privatize the commons.They privilege investor and corporate rights over communityand human rights.And indigenous organizations in Colombia

    • 14:33

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: have called multilateral trade agreements,quote "agreements between the bossesagainst the people and nature."In response to a system that is inherently violent,

    • 14:53

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: deglobalization offers a different setof values and a different vision.So some of the values and vision offered by deglobalizationinclude relocalizing all of our effects to where we live.So in contrast to a globalization system wherethe things that we do and the products that we purchase

    • 15:16

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: and things that our lives depend on in urbanized contexts,we don't actually know where those come from.We don't know the effects of purchasing a good.We don't know the effects of the daily thingswe need to do to survive.Relocalizing allows us to reclaim that responsibility

    • 15:38

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: and to then manage the feedback loopsso that when we do something that'snot in line with a solid ecological cycleor a solid community set of relationships,we get that feedback immediately and we can respond to it.It also includes reclaiming our authority, our responsibilityand our capacities to care for ourselves, our communities

    • 15:60

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: and our ecosystems.So that involves taking responsibilityfor all of our relationships and reclaiming our capacitiesto do this, including our capacities to heal ourselves,reweaving social fabric and so on.So this involves a diverse, resilientand locally adapted and evolved vision or one

    • 16:23

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: in which many worlds exist.In contrast to globalization which envisions one world,deglobalization envisions true diversitywhere people come to their own solutions, their own waysof living abundantly within their local environments.So key concepts in deglobalization

    • 16:44

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: include responsibility, ecological sustainability,diversity, self sufficiency and autonomy or sovereignty.Responsibility is taken in a very different waythan in globalization.So responsibility is to all of our relations.It's to our ecology.It's to each other.And freedom is actually something

    • 17:06

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: that we need in order to fulfill our responsibilities.And this gives a sense of belonging.It gives a sense of true worth within our relationsto be able to be a contributing part of our whole.Ecological sustainability is taken in its fullest sense,

    • 17:26

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: so protecting the capacity of the ecology to support itselfand us in the long term.And this is in contrast to globalization,which talks about sustainable development, which is reallytalking about the sustainability of the developmentparadigm which itself, as we've seen,is not actually sustainable even in basic planetary terms.

    • 17:50

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: Diversity looks different under globalizationand deglobalization.So in globalization, diversity isabout having faces of different colors and nationalitiesand genders inhabiting the same monoculture,the same set of systems everywhere in the world.Diversity and deglobalization involves

    • 18:11

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: allowing local communities to come upwith their own ways of resolving locally adapted culturesand their own ways of organizing themselves,creating multiple different kindsof solutions that are sustainableand there for the long term.Self sufficiency-- again, in the globalization perspective,

    • 18:34

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: this gets defined in a monetary senseand individualized and is not actually reallyof particularly high value.In deglobalization, self sufficiencyis about being able to provide for ourselveswithin the resources that we haveand without depleting those resources.

    • 18:56

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: Autonomy and sovereignty are partof enabling us to fulfill our responsibilities.And so for example, a contrast would be in globalization,food security is talked about whereoftentimes cheap commodity food isof very low nutritional value thatundermine sustainable and peasant-based farming

    • 19:19

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: practices is the focus.Whereas in deglobalization, food sovereigntyis about local communities havingcontrol over the entire system around the productionof their food, from how it's produced,by whom, what kind and so on.

    • 19:42

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: Holistic understanding of globalizationfosters genuine solutions in lieu of more violence.So to give an example of this, therehas been a lot of coverage of the Somali so-called pirates.In the mainstream presentations, thiswas presented as if it were random or terroristic violence

    • 20:08

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: with no context.In fact, when we look more deeply,we see that the phenomenon of Somali piracy, so-called,arose from small fishing villagesin Somalia that had been subject to genocidal aggressions

    • 20:30

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: by the very international ships thatwere going through their waters and thatwere the target of the piracy.So in a United Nations Environmental Program report,they showed that these same international ships hadbeen illegally overfishing within the Somali waters,

    • 20:51

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: taking all the fish so that the small local fishermen were notable to get fish through their means to feed their familiesand that these same ships had been for decades dumpingtoxic radioactive waste from hospitals, from nuclear plants,from all different sources into those waters.

    • 21:13

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: And following the 2004 tsunami, a lot of that toxic wastehad washed up on the beaches and was making the peopleof Somalia very, very sick.And so when we understand those dynamics,then we can see that rather than respond with more violence

    • 21:35

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: and treat this as random aggression that just needsto be stomped down, we can understandwhat these Somalis were respondingto and cease the kinds of aggression thathave led to that, and thus createa world that is peaceful.So when we see the covert illegal and/or aggressive

    • 21:55

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: actions of our own governments, corporations,and other ostensibly licit actors, such as drugwars, weapons and training, assassinations, coups etcetera, we can envision a responseof stopping that violence and opening upthe possibility of genuine peace.This also involves seeing the role of our own ways of life

    • 22:17

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: and the ways in which our very lives dependupon these systems for our survivalas it's currently organized.So global peace and well-being require endingthe violence of globalization.Systematic violence against people in natureis not an accident, but is part of system design.

    • 22:38

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: Ending the structural violence of globalizationrequires a new worldview, values, life waysand ground rules.So some of the lessons that we get from deglobalizationare to create new worlds, change our own life ways so as notto depend on an exploitative system,relocalize, do carbon descent, reactivate sharing economies

    • 23:00

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: and so on, and to create the world's wewant to live wherever we are, not one world but many worlds.So to summarize, in this tutorialwe've recognized the hidden but inherent violenceof globalization, understood key globalization concepts

    • 23:21

      JESSICA SRIKANTIA [continued]: from new perspectives and identifiedthe contrasting vision and valuesin an alternative paradigm, deglobalization.Identified the contrasting vision and valuesin deglobalization.]

Globalization and Deglobalization

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Dr. Jessica Srikantia dissects the dominant narrative and structures of globalization, including necessary violence, selective law enforcement, and money-first values. She then looks at these issues through non-dominant perspectives and introduces de-globalization as a response.

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Globalization and Deglobalization

Dr. Jessica Srikantia dissects the dominant narrative and structures of globalization, including necessary violence, selective law enforcement, and money-first values. She then looks at these issues through non-dominant perspectives and introduces de-globalization as a response.

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