Diversity, Prejudice, and Stereotypes

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    • 00:01

      [MUSIC PLAYING][Diversity, Prejudice, & Stereotypes]

    • 00:11

      DENISE DRISCOLL: There's called the kernel of truth.And that is with some group differences,there is actually a kernel of truth to the stereotype.And the trouble with the kernel of truthis that people take this group difference,and they exaggerate it.So they pull apart the distributionsso they act as though it's something to do like this,

    • 00:32

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: so that men have no ability to understand emotionsand that women have absolutely no spatial skills.You know, turn them around and they get lost, right?So we exaggerate, and that's one way that stereotypes are reallymaintained without you really being all that aware of it.I'm Denise Driscoll, and I'm a visiting facultymember at the Krannert School of Management

    • 00:54

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: at Purdue University.[Denise Driscoll, PhD-- Visiting Faculty Member,Krannert School of Management, Purdue University][How do you see prejudices and stereotypes limiting businessesin the modern world?]I think businesses are limiting themselves in the modern worldby restricting who they actually hire and promotein their own businesses.

    • 01:14

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: So they might recruit widely and try and geta diverse pool of talent, but sometimeseven then, they're just hiring and promotingpeople who are similar to them.They use their own thoughts and feelingsabout who's more talented, and their own stereotypesplay out that way and end up kind of hiring someonewho looks like them.It's kind of a cloning process almost.

    • 01:36

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: Sometimes they're very open, too,to hiring somebody who's diverse,but they might just look superficially.So it's OK if you look different, but don'tbe different.And I think that's also a lost opportunity.They're not willing to adapt to the real diversity in the room.And so I think that's important too.Finally, when I think about how businesses are limiting

    • 01:57

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: themselves because of stereotypes and prejudices,I think they're losing out on a customer base.So, for example, you can have two equally-qualified peopleapplying for a bank loan, and the loan officer--not that he's aware of it, or that she's aware of it--but what happens is they might choose a person who they havesome stereotypes about is they're somehow

    • 02:19

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: more worthy or less of a risk.So on paper, these two are equally qualified,but they'll choose somebody who'smore of a secure bet in their own mind.So they'll choose a person who is white,male, middle-class versus a person of coloror a woman or somebody who's lower class.And so this can actually not onlybe a bad thing in terms of limiting their customer base,

    • 02:42

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: but it's also a bad thing and has gotten some legal-- gottenthem into some legal trouble.[What tools do you offer students to counteractstereotypes and prejudice?]The tools that I try and offer isI make sure it's personalized and including them.A lot of times when we talk about gender,

    • 03:03

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: we talk about sex, we talk about internationals or religion.Some people feel left out.They feel like they're always the one who are the ones beingprejudiced or stereotyping.What I like to point out is we're all in this together.We've all been stereotyped, and we've all felt prejudicebecause of groups we belong to.And so it's all of us.

    • 03:23

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: We all should care about this issue.So a father and his son were involvedin a car accident in which the father was killedand the son was seriously injured.The father was pronounced dead at the scene of the accidentand his body taken to a local morgue.The son was taken by ambulance to a nearby hospitaland was immediately wheeled into an emergency room.A surgeon was called upon arrival,

    • 03:46

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: and seeing the patient, the attending surgeonexclaimed, Oh my god, it's my son!Can you explain this?Just blurt out what might come to mind.

    • 03:57

      SPEAKER 1: Is it the doctor pretending the surgeonis the grandfather of the--

    • 04:01

      SPEAKER 2: It's the wife.

    • 04:03

      DENISE DRISCOLL: There you go-- it's the boy's mother.Now why is this so hard?A lot of delay happens because surgeonbrings to mind a male image in a lot of countries.A second thing I do to give toolsis I try and raise their awareness of why we stereotype,and how a lot of times, it's not under our conscious control,

    • 04:24

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: and that we need to be able to kind of monitorourselves and check what we're doing in terms of our decisionsto make sure we're not being biased.So we teach a lot about things likethe attributional ambiguity.We teach a lot about how we don't realizecertain things are primed and that we might be using them,and we shouldn't be using them.Teach all of the understanding of why and when we stereotype.

    • 04:47

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: And then finally, I try and really teachthem to think about the other person's perspective.So a good example might be-- we've allhad these people who come a little too close,and, you know, what's our impulse, right?They're from cultures with a very small social distancespace, whereas Americans-- we have a huge social distance

    • 05:07

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: space.You know, we mark our area in the library with booksall around us to kind of define it.And so what do we do when people come too close and kind ofinvade our space?Well, we're uncomfortable.It makes us feel negatively towards them,so we oftentimes take a casual, nonchalant step or two back.What do they do?Well, they follow us because they're not comfortable.

    • 05:29

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: And so what we teach people to dois think from their perspective.They're moving closer because theyfeel as though you're being kind of cold and too distantfor the conversation or the friendship level you have.And you're backing away and trying to find a deskto put between you.So learning about culture and learning a little bit of-- kindof understanding the other person's perspective

    • 05:52

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: allows you to deal with the personmore effectively-- to kind of come their way a little bit,to accommodate and adapt to the way they're more comfortablebeing.Sometimes you just have to open them upto realize that we all have stereotypes,and we've all been stereotyped.We all have prejudices, and we all are prejudiced.And so a good way to get people to be motivated

    • 06:14

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: to work in this area is to have them think about a timethey've been stereotyped and that they've experiencedprejudice, because the best way to learnis through their own experiences.You give them the tools by making them think moreabout what we know about why you stereotype, and then yousend them out and try and activate them

    • 06:35

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: so that they actually have those interactions,those cross-cultural interactions, that educate themfurther.[What is cultural intelligence?How is it measured?]Sometimes it's best to think about people who are notvery culturally intelligent because we have allheard the stories-- the ugly American.So they go over-- for example, the Germany,

    • 06:56

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: a beautiful hotel-- and they complainthat there's no air-conditioning or that they have no baconand eggs for breakfast.It's really people who are not flexible and adaptive andappreciative of differences.So somebody who's culturally intelligentis somebody who really is motivated to learnand experience culture.They have a lot of traits that play into this.

    • 07:18

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: So they're very flexible, adaptable.Oftentimes they have a sense of humor, because we all fail.We all have these cultural experiences where we end upmaking a fool of ourselves.And that's part of the learning.But it's also getting out there.And a person who learns the skills-- theyhave these experiences, and they cultivate them.They cultivate close friends from different backgrounds--

    • 07:39

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: people who are not like them-- and theylearn a lot in that way.It's both the personality traits plus the situationsthey put themselves into-- that'swhat increases their cultural intelligence in the end.[Do you think a high cultural intelligence quotient providesa competitive advantage?Why or why not?]Somebody who is culturally intelligent

    • 08:01

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: is going to have a real advantage because they seethings in very different ways.They can look at the world and problem solveby looking at different perspectives.They call upon all the skills they learned aboutby interacting with people who see the world verydifferently than they do.And so they're very willing to and able to adaptto new situations or new ways of doing things.

    • 08:24

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: And so I think it's a huge advantage.They can also recognize that dealing with diverse groupsbrings its own challenges.They don't just ignore it-- they make sure they cultivate.So it's harder with a diverse group sometimes to build trust,to not have misunderstandings crop up.Somebody with cultural intelligenceis able to recognize and manage it effectively

    • 08:48

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: to make sure you get through those kind of challengeswith diverse groups so that you can then enjoy the benefits,because the benefits are what you really want.You want to have a diverse group working in your businesswhere they can be creative and innovativeand think divergently and really not limit themselves,as we talked earlier.They can jump on new opportunities.

    • 09:09

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: [What are your day-to-day work responsibilities?]

    • 09:15

      SPEAKER 3: OK, now are we working with undergrads or--

    • 09:18

      DENISE DRISCOLL: Actually, I could adapt itto whatever level we'll need, but as a mentor,I want to make sure they're doing three different things.I want to make sure that, one, they're being a mentor-teacher.A second thing is I want them to be a student advocate.And then a third thing they have to do,which isn't the most fun, is to be a mentor assessor.

    • 09:38

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: I meet with colleagues.We are trying to write some diversity grantsand try and take a look at when people are havingall these teams experiences, when they'reon diverse teams-- are they really benefiting, and in whatways?So to try and go in there and really assess outcomes.And also look at mentoring because one of the strongest

    • 10:01

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: findings is that if you're mentored,you're much more likely to stay and also graduate.And so we want our undergraduates and graduatestudents to have good mentors and mentors who encourageand are advocates for them.And frankly, the best kind of mentoringis when you have multiple mentorsand you have diverse mentors.Sometimes I'm meeting with MBA students,

    • 10:23

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: talking to them about the different projectsthey have to do-- it might be a business proposal-- tryingto make sure they have it clear and they'reable to communicate well when they present to a class.We bat around ideas.I try and challenge them-- make sure they understandthat there's going to be some interesting questions,and they better think ahead of time.

    • 10:44

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: I am writing grants and researchingwhat grants to write.I'm preparing to teach and figuring outwhat I want students to learn.I teach many hours during the week,and I try to make it a interactive type of sessionso they're not just passively sitting.You can only sit and be passive for 20 minutes maybe-- maximum,

    • 11:07

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: and then it's much better to be engagedso that they're learning.By the time I finish everything I have to do and do grading,oftentimes it's evening and late at night.And looking up, doing library work,trying to figure out what's already out there in the fieldand what needs to be done better-- that'sbasically how I spend my day.[Do you see American business culture becoming more diverse?

    • 11:29

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: Are American businesses keeping up with the rest of the worldin this sphere?]So American businesses, I think, are trying hard,but it depends on, I guess, what your level or your standard is.For those of us in the trenches who'vebeen working on these issues a long time,we sometimes feel they could do a lot better.We look to other countries that are doing much better in terms

    • 11:52

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: of diversifying-- for example, genderand getting women on corporate boards.They're actually setting the bar much higherthan we are in this country.So sometimes we wish for more, but we'revery happy with the fact that businesses reallyare stepping up.Also what's exciting me is we have a real population nowbeing trained up.

    • 12:12

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: When I teach the MBAs here at Krannert,they're such a diverse, international groupfrom very different backgrounds, from engineering to HR.It's just amazing when they come together--they learn from each other.When I think about them being the future businessCEOs and leaders, I feel as though it'sgoing to get better.It can't not get better because they're learning all about

    • 12:35

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: cultural intelligence when they're doingtheir homework with each other.But, once again, it's where you start from.If you start from thinking how things were 20 years ago-- wow,we're doing great.If you think and compare, sometimes you're like,I wish-- it's your standard of comparison--I wish we would do more.[How do prejudices and stereotypes create

    • 12:56

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: communication barriers?]Prejudice and stereotypes lead you to make certain assumptionswhen people are interacting and talking and communicatingwith you that are not warranted.Women, for example, are more likely to have some upspeak.So I might say, I'm graduating in 2017.

    • 13:17

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: And you might think, well, that doesn't sound like youknow when you're graduating.So it expresses some hesitancy or doubt,when, in fact, it's more of a typical speech pattern.It invites you to reply, to comment-- it engages.And so sometimes we're at cross-purposeswhen we talk to one another.Another good example is that stereotypes and prejudice

    • 13:39

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: gets in the way.Think, for example, if you were evaluating me.I'm your employee, and I worry about your attitudes.I'm concerned that you have some prejudice, some stereotypes,about me.When you evaluate me, let's say you gave me a rave review--you're doing wonderful.There's a barrier there because I can't reallytrust-- are you saying that because you really mean it?

    • 13:59

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: Are you saying it because you're worriedabout saying something negative or holding backbecause you really don't want to make me better?So you're not informing me of where I'm really not performingwell.Or conversely, let's say you give me a horrible evaluation.You evaluate me negatively.Once again, I can't trust your feedback.I might think that you have this negative opinion because

    • 14:20

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: of your bias and your prejudice against people from my group.And so it leaves this communication gap,this barrier, where I can't respond effectivelyto your feedback, and perhaps you'renot then getting through to me.So this barrier comes up between groupsbecause of the possibility, the ambiguity, of whyyou're communicating to me.

    • 14:42

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: [How does prejudice relate to age?Are younger people more accepting of different culturesthan their older counterparts?]There is some evidence showing that as you grow older,there's increases in prejudice.But it's a correlation-- not all that strong--and there's a lot more going into it.Sometimes they talk about older people

    • 15:04

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: just being more willing to tell youwhat they're thinking-- along these lines.What I don't want people to take awaywhen they hear this kind of thingis that, just because you're younger,you're somehow the prejudice-free zone.Because when I talk to younger people,they sometimes act as though, oh, well,that's your generation.You have the stereotypes, you have the prejudi--that's not our problem, we're kind of--

    • 15:25

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: And what they don't realize is maybe the groups change, maybethe content of the stereotype changes,but they are very much still doing the same kind of thing--treating their in-group members better,coming up with better explanationsfor their behavior, treating out-groups more negatively.And so the same dynamics are going on.So I think we have to be vigilant

    • 15:45

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: and not pretend things are changing more than they are.Stereotypes have certainly faded,but sometimes new ones are introduced.So I think it's this constant being aware, being vigilant,and being motivated to treat people as individuals,yet at the same time, be recognizing the influenceculture has on everyone.

    • 16:06

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: [What is the most rewarding part of your job?]If you raise awareness of a stereotype,people become better, and they'reable to control decisions and being more accurate in termsof dealing with other people.People who study diversity and stereotypes and prejudice--it's a very challenging field and very difficult

    • 16:30

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: because you do hear all the bad stories sometimes,and, I think, I always want to keep the balance.I always want to remember all the good and the wayswe've really made progress in this countryand around the world.And I think that's the hardest part--is seeing how many people get discouraged, how oftentimes youhave to deal with intergroup conflict--

    • 16:51

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: that you just kind of shake your headand wish you could educate and put them in a classroombecause I do think education's the key.I've just seen the wake-up call on students' faceswhen they kind of get it, and theyget inspired and motivated.And they're going to be out there being much moreeffective, I think, in the end than people whodon't spend the time or energy.

    • 17:12

      DENISE DRISCOLL [continued]: They have the fire lit, and that's what I really enjoy.[MUSIC PLAYING]

Diversity, Prejudice, and Stereotypes

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Abstract

Dr. Denise Driscoll explains how prejudice and stereotypes limit businesses. Some stereotypes have faded with time but new ones have been introduced; cultural intelligence and awareness is necessary to prevent prejudice. Driscoll discusses prejudice in business, what her job entails, and how prejudice limits communication.

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Diversity, Prejudice, and Stereotypes

Dr. Denise Driscoll explains how prejudice and stereotypes limit businesses. Some stereotypes have faded with time but new ones have been introduced; cultural intelligence and awareness is necessary to prevent prejudice. Driscoll discusses prejudice in business, what her job entails, and how prejudice limits communication.

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