Attachment Theory

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    • 00:01

      ASHLEY CONSTANTINO: My name is Ashley Constantino.I'm from the Chicago School of Professional Psychology.I am talking to you today about attachment theory,which will be found in the Encyclopedia of Counseling.Attachment theory was developed by John Bowlby in the 1950sand '60s.It was in addition to psychoanalytic theory.John Bowlby developed attachment theoryto understand early social development.

    • 00:23

      ASHLEY CONSTANTINO [continued]: He describes attachment as a secure basefrom to explore close relationships.Attachment bonds are essential to the survival of humans.Secure relationships with multiple caregiversis what sets up a stage for what relationshipswill be like throughout a person's entire lifespan.Attachment theory was further expanded by Mary Ainsworth

    • 00:45

      ASHLEY CONSTANTINO [continued]: and her associates.She looked at the influence of attachmentbetween individuals and their surroundings.She used a research study called "Strange SituationClassification", where they took 12 to 18 month old babiesand they had the mom bring them to a room thatwas unfamiliar to them.They watched how the child reacted

    • 01:06

      ASHLEY CONSTANTINO [continued]: with the mom in the room with them.The mom then left the room.A stranger came in.Then the stranger left and mom came back.So they measured four things.Separation anxiety, infant's willingness to explore,separation anxiety, stranger anxiety,and the reunion behavior.What they found was that attachments vary over time.

    • 01:30

      ASHLEY CONSTANTINO [continued]: They can change or stay the same.They can go from secure to insecure and vice versa.But regardless of the attachment style,a child has created a blueprint for whattheir relationship with others willbe like throughout their life.So based on the "Strange Situation Classification",Mary Ainsworth and her associatesdeveloped two types of attachments

    • 01:52

      ASHLEY CONSTANTINO [continued]: styles-- secure and insecure.So secure attachment is passionate feelingsof intimacy, emotional security, and physical safety.There's good communication.There's productive coping strategies.Little anxiety when the attachment figureleaves the room or goes away.

    • 02:12

      ASHLEY CONSTANTINO [continued]: People with secure attachments havestrong sense of self worth and belonging-ness.These often occur if the closeness and activeis a shared interaction.On the flip side is insecure attachment,and these are often results of traumatic relationships.They're shortfalls in the development,and they break down different types of insecure attachment.

    • 02:35

      ASHLEY CONSTANTINO [continued]: 35% of people are insecurely attached.And so those different types of insecure attachmentsare anxious ambivalent, anxious avoidant, and disorganized.So in anxious avoidant attachmentis when there's an insignificant need

    • 02:57

      ASHLEY CONSTANTINO [continued]: to feel physical contact from a caregiveror any type of relationship once it becomes reunited.These types of insecure attachmentsare often used as defense mechanisms.These types of people withdraw from relationshipsand are very emotional beta set.Anxious ambivalent have this shyness

    • 03:19

      ASHLEY CONSTANTINO [continued]: when it comes to exploring.They're very keen self protection.They can be irresponsible and accident prone.They have intense misery when their caretaker or attachmentfigure leaves, and they have an inabilityto be comforted when the figure returns.

    • 03:40

      ASHLEY CONSTANTINO [continued]: The third type is disorganized attachment,and this is a combination of both.So a person who just depending on the situationreacts differently.So John Bowlby originally created attachment theorylooking at the view of mothers.He kind of looked at fathers as an ambiguous role,

    • 04:00

      ASHLEY CONSTANTINO [continued]: but later realized that they were pretty imperative.The father's role became prevalentduring John Bowlby's second version of attachment theory.He looked at how father's reactions formed patternsfor the child father attachment relationship.So the father's role and the mother's roleend up being two separate types of attachment.

    • 04:22

      ASHLEY CONSTANTINO [continued]: Mom is more of a secure base in timesof needing to be comforted.A father's role is more teaching a childhow to be curious, explore.So it's kind of both situations that a child goes through.They are distinct roles-- very separate, but alsovery important for a child's development.

    • 04:44

      ASHLEY CONSTANTINO [continued]: Mom plays more of a protective function,keeping the child safe in times of danger,delivering love and security, a placeto come back to when that curiosity and exploration endsor goes wrong.Dad is kind of a trusted confidant.He participates in the exciting things, the challengingpractices.

    • 05:05

      ASHLEY CONSTANTINO [continued]: He promotes exploration, excitement, gives confidenceto go out and venture and learn new things.He kind of has that risk taking component to him.So you can see the need for both a mother and a fatheras an attachment figure.The father's role becomes more noticeablelater in a child's development.

    • 05:26

      ASHLEY CONSTANTINO [continued]: Because when they're smaller, youneed more of the comforting and security.There's also an impact for the need for play,and how play fits with an attachment.Play is tied to enjoyment, discovery,and a sense of achievement.Fathers are more tied to that.

    • 05:47

      ASHLEY CONSTANTINO [continued]: Mom can emphasize those-- giving encouragement, feeling safe.It's an important aspect to have both areas.It's an equivalent parenting role.It's not like one is better than the other.There's fluctuating amounts in commonality between the two.However, each parent offers a different type that is needed.

    • 06:13

      ASHLEY CONSTANTINO [continued]: There is a need for the two distinct systems.Healthy development depends on positive and valuableattachment to both types of attachment.It could be argued that it's not necessarilya mother's role and a father's role,because sometimes the father is more the secure baseand the mom is more about the exploratory.So future research could kind of-- it

    • 06:33

      ASHLEY CONSTANTINO [continued]: would be interesting to see if it's justthe two types of styles or if it's specificallygender associated.But it's important for a child's developmentto have both the secure place and the trusted confidante.Parents who compete for the love and attentionfrom a child instead of giving equal amounts of attachment

    • 06:60

      ASHLEY CONSTANTINO [continued]: create insecurely attached children.So in order for a child to be securely attached,they need to feel support from both sides.Secure attachments, in conclusion,provide a secure base to explore the world.They develop a positive inner functioning model of selfrelative to others and effective relationships.

    • 07:20

      ASHLEY CONSTANTINO [continued]: It's a positive inter-working modelwhich adopts cognitive development, skills,and achievements, as well as social and emotionaldevelopment.And then there's two distinct systems in place.Recognize that the secure base iswhere they feel safe if something goes wrong,and then a trusted confidant to show the way.

Attachment Theory

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Abstract

Developed by John Bowlby in the 1950s, attachment theory addresses early social development. The secure base from which to explore close relationships develops in as part of the parent-child bond and includes other caregivers. Together they set the stage for a child's future relationships. Ashley Constantino describes attachment and the typology of attachment.

Attachment Theory

Developed by John Bowlby in the 1950s, attachment theory addresses early social development. The secure base from which to explore close relationships develops in as part of the parent-child bond and includes other caregivers. Together they set the stage for a child's future relationships. Ashley Constantino describes attachment and the typology of attachment.

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