Gender and Women's Leadership: A Reference Handbook


Edited by: Karen O'Connor

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Feminist Theories of Leadership

    Part II: History of Women's Public Leadership

    Part III: Women's Leadership in Social Movements

    Part IV: Women's Leadership in the Global Context

    Part V: Women's Leadership in the Business and Profit Sector

    Part VI: Women's Leadership in Religion and Religious Organizations

    Part VII: Women's Leadership in Academia

    Part VIII: Leadership in Women's Health

    Part IX: Women's Leadership in the Media

    Part X: Women's Leadership in Sports

    Part XI: Women's Leadership in the Arts

    Part XII: Women's Leadership in Public Policy

  • Editorial Board


    Karen O'Connor American University

    Consulting Editor

    Lucretia McCulley University of Richmond

    Managing Editor

    Natalie Greene University of Maryland

    Editorial Board

    Barbara Bird American University

    Mary W. Gray American University

    Mary A. Hums University of Louisville

    Dotty Lynch American University

    Lucinda Peach American University


    View Copyright Page

    List of Entries

    Reader's Guide


    When the editors at SAGE Publications approached me nearly 4 years ago to describe a new leadership handbook series they hoped to develop and to ask if I might be interested in serving as a series consulting editor, I was intrigued. From the viewpoint of a librarian who has worked with the Jepson School of Leadership Studies at the University of Richmond, I was familiar firsthand with the needs of both faculty researchers and undergraduate students and topics of interest and relevance. From this perspective, I collaborated with SAGE to develop a list that, over the intervening years, has evolved into a series of two-volume reference handbooks on political and civic leadership, gender and women's leadership, leadership in nonprofit organizations, leadership in science and technology, and environmental leadership.

    It is my hope that students, faculty, researchers, and reference librarians will benefit from this series by discovering the many varied ways that leadership permeates a wide variety of disciplines and interdisciplinary topics. SAGE's Encyclopedia of Leadership (2004) has been an outstanding reference tool in recent years to assist students with understanding some of the major theories and developments within leadership studies. As one of the newest interdisciplinary fields in academia in the past 20 years, leadership studies has drawn on many established resources in the social sciences, humanities, and organizational management. However, academic resources that are wholly dedicated and developed to focus on leadership as an academic study have been few and far between. The SAGE Reference Series on Leadership will provide an excellent starting place for the student who wants a thorough understanding of primary leadership topics within a particular discipline. The chapters in each of the handbooks will introduce them to key concepts, controversies, history, and so forth, as well as helping them become familiar with the best-known scholars and authors in this emerging field of study. Not only will the handbooks be helpful in leadership studies schools and programs, they will also assist students in numerous disciplines and other interdisciplinary studies programs. The sources will also be useful for leaders and researchers in nonprofit and business organizations.

    I would like to acknowledge Jim Brace-Thompson, senior editor, and Rolf Janke, vice president and publisher at SAGE Reference for their guidance, superb organization, and enthusiasm throughout the handbook creation process. I admire both of them for their intellectual curiosity and their willingness to create new reference tools for leadership studies. I would also like to acknowledge the faculty, staff, and students of the Jepson School of Leadership Studies for the many contributions they have made to the establishment of leadership studies as an academic field. Founded in 1992, the Jepson School of Leadership Studies is the only institution of its kind in the world, with a full-time, multidisciplinary faculty dedicated to pursuing new insights into the complexities and challenges of leadership and to teaching the subject to undergraduates. When I was assigned to serve as the liaison librarian to the new school in 1992, I had no idea of how much I would learn about leadership studies. Over the past 18 years, I have audited courses in the school, attended numerous Jepson Forums and speaker series, taught library and information research skills to Jepson students, assisted faculty and staff with various research questions, and engaged in enlightening conversations with both faculty and students. Through these many experiences, my knowledge and understanding of the field has grown tremendously, and it is has been a unique experience to observe the development of a new field of study in a very brief time. I thank my Jepson colleagues for including me on the journey.

    LucretiaMcCulley, Consulting EditorDirector, Outreach ServicesLiaison Librarian for Leadership StudiesBoatwright Memorial LibraryUniversity of Richmond, Richmond, VA


    When I first was approached by SAGE about my willingness to undertake this project, my initial thought was “What a great idea!” I recently had contributed to George Goethals, Georgia Sorenson, and James Burns's four-volume Encyclopedia of Leadership. I believed that the time was right to develop such a resource exclusively on women's leadership. With a background in political science as well as the law, I envisioned that this would be a fun and fairly easy enterprise. Was I ever wrong. Although I had edited the journal Women & Politics for 4 years and hosted two leadership conferences at the Women & Politics Institute at American University, the breadth of work being done on women's leadership and leadership studies more generally was astonishing.

    A handbook on women's leadership, in theory, should begin with a definition of leadership. To find one definition that could satisfy all the authors in this handbook would be impossible. Everyone from the popular press to academics seem to have turned their attention to issues of, and questions surrounding, leadership. Many definitions are coached in actions leaders take or how they take them. Many other works are stories of leaders with lessons to be drawn from the performance of certain people in certain situations. Moreover, certain disciplines, as well as the development of leadership as a field of study itself, as a freestanding department or center for the study or action, further complicate the development of grand theory in this area.

    Each section in this handbook, in fact, begins with an overview of leadership questions that have been or are still being tackled in every field where the study of women, as women, is important. And, interestingly, as it turned out, this handbook has largely become a handbook written by women. Of the 101 full entries included here, upward of 90% were written by women. In that, this may be the first such comprehensive undertaking to identify the debates within various disciplines, capture factors believed key to leadership, and locate where women leaders have been or are now found from a woman's perspective. Thus, national surveys of leaders, surveys to identify leaders, and analyses of leadership styles must always be analyzed with an eye to the chances for women's leadership to be underappreciated or ignored altogether. The depth of work in this handbook proves that complaints that “there is no literature on,” or no reason to examine, women's leadership can no longer be sustained. Stories of great women that have been lost over time are found in many of these chapters.

    Within these chapters, written by experts across fields all over the globe, leadership is approached from myriad perspectives. None is “right” or “wrong.” All offer useful insights from experts within areas and often come to different conclusions about leadership. In the context of the key role leaders play in all facets of human activity, moreover, those who are labeled as leaders can play an extraordinarily important role in constructing views of leadership.

    In 2009 U.S. News & World Report published its annual list of leaders compiled in conjunction with the Harvard University School of Business. Of those experts on “leaders” or “leadership” consulted, 27 of 37 (73%) had direct or indirect associations with Harvard. Only 30% of the evaluators were women. Thus, from the beginning, “who” were identified as leaders sang, in the notable words of political scientist E. E. Schattschneider, not only with “an upperclass bias” but with a male one too. The selection team also produced a list of leaders in which one often had to mine deep down into the trenches of local or community leadership to “find” a woman leader. Surprisingly, at least to me, these experts failed to recognize logical leaders such as the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Honorable Nancy Pelosi, or Associate Justice Sandra Day O'Connor. One, in fact, could argue that as the swing justice on the Supreme Court of the United States for many years, O'Connor not only set national policy but decided the presidency of the United States in 2000. No doubt my background and training bring those two notable absences to mind much the way Brad Pitt fans get upset when People magazine fails to name him “Sexiest Man of the Year,” but honestly, how do you look at leadership and not include the leader of the U.S. House of Representatives?

    Although I was not aware of it at the time, after reading thousands of pages on women, women leaders, and characteristics of women leaders, several themes became apparent quickly and appeared in most of the entries. Whether in a part overview, individual chapter, or a Spotlight on an individual woman, one of at least four factors emerged in each entry:

    • Most of history is still HIStory. Achievements of women simply were not recorded or deemed important by chroniclers of events. I have never learned more in a 2-year period than I did in editing and writing for this handbook. Finding out about women still takes extra digging into primary source materials or careful collection of data from multiple sources. I am grateful to all of the contributors who took their tasks so seriously to provide us with important new insights on women's leadership and for hundreds of suggestions for future research to continue to put women's accomplishments in a more thoughtful light.
    • A woman's voice does not a chorus make. Simply having one woman in a position of leadership does not mean that women will be welcome into leadership positions in a company, as an administrator or as a president. Margaret Thatcher was an effective leader but did little to foster women into positions of leadership. In sharp contrast, Speaker Pelosi has gone out of her way to position women as committee chairs, subcommittee chairs, and in leadership positions. Moreover, for women to have an impact on leadership, usually some critical mass must be met.
    • Woman not only speak in a different voice, but their voices are heard differently. A significant body of research exists that documents that women not only speak differently than do men, but often lead differently, too. Part of this difference stems from difference in tone and presentation. This, in turn, leads many men to view women as less visionary, which many leadership theorists see as key to explaining why women are perceived as weaker leaders. Thus, who defines the terms and their components can have a significant outcome on any leadership study.
    • We are far from approaching equality for women as leaders or in leadership positions. This handbook ends with a discussion of Hillary Rodham Clinton's unsuccessful bid for the U.S. presidency and a discussion of what can be done to “fix” leadership gaps. But, nearly every chapter in this handbook, or at least one within a section, notes the way that women have to go to be recognized as or become leaders. Whether it is politics, the arts, within social movements, or the professions, women consistently lag behind men in almost all areas except those related to women's caring functions such as education or nursing.

    I would never have undertaken this enterprise if I had had any idea of the time it would take. Natalie Greene started working on this project when she was an undergraduate at American University enrolled in its Women, Policy, and Political Leadership Certificate Program. By the time this work is published, she will have nearly completed her master's degree in library science. I could not have finished this project without her assistance. She has been enormously patient with me—only asking me at least 100 times, “Where is Margaret Sanger?” (a reference to the last Spotlight/chapter completed). She has cheerfully searched for, asked, pleaded, and at times even threatened the authors commissioned to write these chapters. The paperwork and tracking involved in this endeavor were daunting, and Natalie took it all on with her usual brilliance and aplomb. She also has been a wonderful colleague who has shared similar moments of panic when we realized that certain topics were not included in this handbook. I will leave it to readers to discern those omissions. Some were in areas for which we simply could not find authors. Others were ones that come out of nowhere, seem obvious, but we just missed the topic.

    I would also be remiss if I failed to mention the support of William M. LeoGrande, Dean of the School of Public Affairs at American University, as well as the help of my talented and knowledgeable editorial board (whose names are listed in the credits).

    As a control freak, I personally edited each of these entries—some that came in at 9,000 to 12,000 words—way over the SAGE limit of 5,000 to 7,000 words. To all of the authors who may believe they were overedited, I apologize. But, I think that these efforts, combined with Natalie's and those of the editors at SAGE, have allowed us to produce a body of scholarship that can move the field forward much in the way that James MacGregor Burns's Leadership did in 1978.

    KarenO'Connor, Editor Jonathan N. Helfat Distinguished Professor of Political Science Founder and Director, Emerita, Women & Politics Institute American University

    About the Editor

    Karen O'Connor is the Jonathan N. Helfat Distinguished Professor of Political Science at American University and holds the only named chair in the School of Public Affairs. She received her J.D. and Ph. D. from the State University of New York at Buffalo.

    Prior to teaching at American University, she taught at Emory University, rising from instructor to full professor in 10 years. There, she was the first woman in 150 years to receive the university-wide Emory Williams teaching award. At American University, she received its highest honor, the Scholar/Teacher of the Year award in 2002.

    O'Connor founded the Women & Politics Institute at American University and served as editor of the journal Women & Politics for two terms. She served as the institute's director for 12 years and now heads its Director's Circle. O'Connor also has served as an advisor to the Speaker of the House on women's issues and has testified before both the House and Senate Judiciary subcommittees dealing with abortion and reproductive rights.

    O'Connor is the author or coauthor of more than 100 books, textbooks, and monographs. She is preparing the 11th edition of the number one best-selling American government text, American Government: Roots and Reform (with Larry

    J. Sabato and Alixandra B. Yanus), as well as the 5th edition of Women, Politics and American Society with Nancy E. McGlen (et al.). She is also the author of more than 35 published or forthcoming refereed journal and law review articles, 17 of which have been reprinted in anthologies.

    Within the profession, she has been honored for her work in advancing women in politics by numerous organizations, including the Washington, D.C., Women's Bar Association, the National Association of Public Administration (the Joan Fiss Award for outstanding contributions to the field), and the Southern Political Science Association (SPSA), among others. The SPSA honored her with the Erica Fairchild award for mentoring women in the profession in 1988, as well as the Marion Irish award for coauthored Best Paper on Women and Politics on two separate occasions.

    She has also served as the president of the SPSA, the National Capital Area Political Science Association, the Women's Caucus for Political Science, the Southern Women's Caucus of Political Science, and the American Political Science Association Organized Research Sections on Law and Courts and Women and Politics. She has also served on the Commissions of the Status of Women of the American, Midwest, and Political Science Associations.

    About the Contributors

    Morra Aarons-Mele is the founder of Women Online, a consulting firm for nonprofit organizations, companies, and political campaigns seeking to mobilize women online. She is a blogger and former political consultant. Aarons-Mele's Internet experience spans politics and the private sector. During the 2004 presidential election, Aarons-Mele was the director of Internet marketing for the Democratic National Committee. After the 2004 election she founded Edelman's digital public affairs team. Before going to Washington, D.C., Aarons-Mele worked in various roles at leading online companies, including and iVillage UK. Aarons-Mele has degrees from Harvard University and Brown University. She is active in local politics and represented Washington, D.C.'s Advisory Neighborhood Commission for Ward 2B. She lives near Boston with her husband, toddler, and menagerie.

    Allison Adams-Alwine is a business development associate at the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW), a leading international institution on gender and development. Prior to joining ICRW, she worked as a Legislative Fellow in the office of Congresswoman Carolyn Maloney (D-NY), focusing on a wide range of women's issues, including global women's health and human rights, sexual assault in the military, and paid parental leave. She is a member of Women in International Security and helped to conduct research for and edit the Women in United Nations Peace Operations report in 2008. Adams-Alwine received an M.A. in conflict resolution from Georgetown University in May 2009. Her undergraduate degree in political science and sociology is from Vanderbilt University.

    Daniel Alef is a novelist and syndicated columnist who has written more than 300 biographical profiles of the great American titans of industry, law, politics, finance, philanthropy, and transportation. He is also the author of many legal articles, one tax law book, one historical anthology (Centennial Stories), and the award-winning historical novel Pale Truth. Pale Truth was named Book of the Year for general fiction by ForeWord Magazine in 2001. Alef is a former lawyer, CEO of a small public company, and rancher. He earned a B.S. and J.D. from University of California, Los Angeles and an LL.M. from the London

    School of Economics and Political Science; he also did postgraduate studies at Cambridge University. Alef is a trustee of the Santa Barbara Historical Museum and sits on the Santa Barbara Sheriff's Activities League.

    Estrelda Alexander is a professor of theology at Regent University School of Divinity in Virginia Beach, Virginia, having earned her M. Div. at Wesley Theological Seminary and her Ph.D. in political theology at The Catholic University of America. She currently serves as president of the Society for Pentecostal Studies and is on the editorial board of the Journal of Pentecostal Theology. She has written two books, The Women of Azusa Street and Limited Liberty: The Ministry and Legacy of Four Pentecostal Women Pioneers, and coedited (with Amos Yong) Philip's Daughters: Women in Pentecostal-Charismatic Leadership. She is currently working on Black Fire: One Hundred Years of African American Pentecostalism. She is an ordained minister in the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee).

    Emily T. Amanatullah is an assistant professor at the McCombs School of Business, University of Texas at Austin. She received her B.S. in psychology and computer science in 2002 from Duke University and her Ph.D. in management in 2007 from Columbia University. Her current research projects include such topics as how gender and status moderate negotiation success and the effects of female negotiation, among others. She won the Sage Dissertation Award from the Gender & Diversity in Organizations Division of the Academy of Management in 2008 and the James McKeen Cattell Award for Outstanding Dissertation in Psychology from the NewYork Academy of Sciences in 2007. She has served as a reviewer for the Conflict Management, Gender & Diversity in Organizations, and Organizational Behavior Divisions of the Academy of Management annual meeting for the past 4 years and is an ad hoc reviewer for numerous journals.

    Laura Ardito first began working on human trafficking issues in 2001 while she was volunteering with AmeriCorps as a family services manager at a transitional housing program. Shortly afterward, Ardito joined the nongovernmental organization (NGO) Vital Voices Global Partnership where she helped initiate the antitrafficking program. She managed an antitrafficking public awareness campaign, edited the Vital Voices Trafficking Alert newsletter, and worked with government and NGO representatives from around the world. Ardito was also a Legal Fellow at the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, where she researched foreign laws on human trafficking. Currently, Ardito is an attorney at an international law firm based in Washington, D.C., where she is a member of the International Department and Business and Human Rights practice group. She has represented political asylees and immigrant victims of crime and has been involved in proceedings at the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. Ardito was awarded her B.A. by Cornell University and her J.D., summa cum laude, by American University Washington College of Law.

    Michelle P. Baca is a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Chicana/o Studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Her work focuses on representations of race, gender, and sexuality in 19th- and 20th-century Chicana/o literature and history. She has an M.A. in literature from the University of New Mexico and an advanced B.A. from Occidental College.

    Edwina Barvosa is associate professor of social and political theory in the Department of Chicana/o Studies at University of California, Santa Barbara. She earned her Ph.D. in political science from Harvard University and is the author of Wealth of Selves: Multiple Identities, Mestiza Consciousness, and the Subject of Politics.

    Barbara Bird is associate professor of management at Kogod School of Business, American University in Washington, D.C., and teaches organizational behavior and leadership courses. Bird holds a psychology degree from California State University, Fresno; an M.A. in social psychology from the University of Western Ontario; and a business Ph.D. from the University of Southern California. Her research interests include entrepreneurial cognition and entrepreneurial behavior and research projects examining new venture liabilities of newness and strategic alliances. She authored Entrepreneurial Behavior and several scholarly journal articles in Academy of Management Review, Organization Science, and Personnel Psychology. She is past chair of the Entrepreneurship Division of the Academy of Management.

    Glenna G. Bower is an assistant professor in the Physical Education Department at the University of Southern Indiana. She holds a Ph.D. in educational leadership and organizational development with a concentration in sport administration from the University of Louisville. Bower's main research area is mentoring to advance women in leadership positions within sport. Bower coedited Women as Leaders in Sport: Impact and Influence and has written one book, titled A Guide to Careers and Field Experiences in Sport and Physical Activity. Her other scholarly work includes contributions to various journals and numerous presentations to scholarly associations at the state, regional, and national levels. Bower is an active member of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, the Indiana Association for Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance of the Sport Management Council, and the Diversity and Social Justice Committee for the Midwest District. Bower worked at the 2004 Summer Olympic Games in Athens, Greece.

    Ivy Broder is a professor of economics at American University. She received her Ph.D. in economics from the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Her scholarly articles have appeared in many top-tier refereed journals, including The American Economic Review, Journal of the American Statistical Association, and Economic Inquiry. Several of her publications address issues related to women in the economics profession. She was a program director at the National Science Foundation and an economic policy fellow at the Brookings Institution. For the American Economic Association, Broder has been a member of the board of the Committee on the Status of Women in the Economics Profession and the COSSA-AEA Liaison Committee. For 15 years, Broder served American University as dean of academic affairs and then interim provost. As interim provost, Broder's leadership resulted in many records for hiring and promoting women.

    Keri Vacanti Brondo is an assistant professor of anthropology at the University of Memphis. Brondo is an applied anthropologist engaged in teaching and research in the areas of gender, development and social justice, tourism, natural resource management, consumerism and environmental sustainability, and applied participatory action research and assessment. She received a Ph.D. from Michigan State University in 2006, served as chair (2006–2007) of the Committee on the Status of Women in Anthropology of the American Anthropological Association, and has worked on two work climate surveys that explored the gendered dimensions of work as academics and practicing anthropologists. In Central America, Brondo has explored the organizational mobilization of female Mayan domestic workers in Guatemala, identity politics and indigenous mobilization, tourism development, and the gendered impacts of neoliberal agrarian reform in Honduras. In the Memphis area her work focuses on (a) women, work, and economic justice, and (b) tourism, natural resource management, environmental justice, and sustainable communities.

    Shifra Bronznick is the founding president of Advancing Women Professionals and the Jewish Community and consults to nonprofit organizations on navigating change. She has designed influential action research projects in the Jewish community and is coauthor (with Didi Goldenhar and Marty Linsky) of the book Leveling the Playing Field. The strategist for the White House Project, Bronznick designs its National Women's Leadership programs. She is a senior fellow at New York University's Research Center for Leadership in Action at the Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service and has a bachelor's degree in English literature from Queens College, City University of New York.

    Martine Watson Brownley is Goodrich C. White Professor of English at Emory University and director of Emory's Fox Center for Humanistic Inquiry. She is an associated faculty member in the Department of Women's Studies, where she previously served as director. She received her Ph.D. from Harvard University. Among her publications in 18th-century English literature are two books on Clarendon and articles on Johnson, Gibbon, and others. In Women's Studies she has published Deferrals of Domain on contemporary women novelists and articles on Behn, Piozzi, and Atwood.

    Fiona Buckley is a lecturer in the Department of Government, University College Cork, Ireland. Her teaching interests include gender politics, Irish politics, and electoral behavior. She is a doctoral candidate in the School of Politics, International Studies and Philosophy at Queen's University Belfast. Her thesis examines women in cabinet government in Europe.

    Mary Buckley directs the Elizabeth J. Somers Women's Leadership Program in International Arts and Culture at The George Washington University, where she is also an assistant professor in dance. Buckley teaches an interdisciplinary arts seminar, dance history, and a course on modernism in Paris, France. She recently completed a video documentary, Capacity to Transform, on three Indian women nongovernmental organization leaders. As a dancer, Buckley has performed with Mills/Dance, Liz Lerman Dance Exchange, Deborah Riley Dance, and Kickstart, a British-based dance company directed by Virginia Taylor. Buckley earned an M.A. degree in dance from The George Washington University.

    Deborah Burand directs the International Transactions Clinic (ITC) at the University of Michigan Law School, the first law clinic of its kind in the United States. Burand previously served as the executive vice president of Strategic Services at the Grameen Foundation and is a cofounder and the first elected president of Women Advancing Microfinance International. Burand worked at the Federal Reserve Board and at the U.S. Treasury Department and also as an international corporate attorney providing pro bono support to Conservation International in the world's first debt-for-nature exchange. She also represented bank advisory committees in restructuring the sovereign debt of Brazil, Peru, and Vietnam, among other countries. Burand is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and is a former international affairs fellow of the council. She also was the co–Topic Leader for Finance of the Clinton Global Initiative for 2009. Burand earned her B.A., cum laude, from DePauw University and a joint graduate degree, J.D./M.S.F.S. with honors, from Georgetown University.

    Louise Carbert is associate professor of political science at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. She received her Ph.D. from York University in NorthYork, Ontario, Canada. Her first book, Agrarian Feminism: The Politics of Ontario Farm Women, was a Choice book selection for 1996. She has conducted interviews with rural women leaders across much of Canada and has published books and articles on a variety of topics relating to women in Canadian politics. One of her recent works is a chapter on the impact of Senate reform on women's representation, included in the book The Democratic Dilemma: Reforming the Canadian Senate.

    Mary Clark is an associate professor at American University Washington College of Law (WCL), where she teaches property, legal ethics, and U.S. women's legal history. Prior to coming to WCL, Clark was a visiting lecturer and research scholar at Yale Law School, where she researched and wrote on the history of women at Yale Law School, and a Supreme Court fellow with the Federal Judicial Center, where she researched and wrote on the history of women federal judges. A graduate of Bryn Mawr College and Harvard Law School, she clerked for the U.S. Court of Appeals in Montgomery, Alabama, before joining the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission as an appellate attorney, concentrating on issues of sexual harassment and disability rights law. Her articles include “One Man's Token Is Another Woman's Breakthrough? The Appointment of the First Woman Federal Judge” and “Carter's Groundbreaking Appointment of Women to the Federal Bench: His Other ‘Human Rights’ Record,” among others.

    Dionne C. Clemons is an assistant professor of public relations at Towson University in Towson, Maryland. She earned a Ph.D. at Howard University in Washington, D.C., specializing in mass communication and media studies. Clemons teaches undergraduate courses in principles of public relations, public relations writing, and professional issues in public relations, and taught undergraduate public relations courses at Howard University for 4 years prior to her position with Towson. She previously taught graduate public relations courses at The Johns Hopkins University's Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences and has more than 13 years of professional public relations experience working in, and consulting for, both private and public sector organizations. Clemons is a research fellow in residence at American University's Women & Politics Institute as her research focuses on the perception of the public relations role within government organizations, the affect of public relations on government transparency and policy making, and gender, power, and the role of the government communicator.

    Eleanor Clift is a contributing editor to Newsweek magazine in its Washington bureau and a panelist on the syndicated public affairs show, The McLaughlin Group. She is the author of two books, Founding Sisters and the 19th Amendment and Two Weeks of Life: A Memoir of Love, Death and Politics, and the coauthor (with her late husband, Tom Brazaitis) of Madam President: Shattering the Last Glass Ceiling and War Without Bloodshed: The Art of Politics.

    M. Margaret Conway is Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Florida. She is the author of Women and Political Participation and Women and Public Policy: A Revolution in Progress and the coauthor (with P. Lien and J. Wong) of The Politics of Asian Americans. She has published widely in academic journals, including the American Political Science Review, Journal of Politics, and Women & Politics.

    Courtenay W. Daum is an assistant professor of political science at Colorado State University. She received her Ph.D. in American government and women and politics from Georgetown University in 2004. Her areas of research include the study of female legislators, feminist legal theory, organized interest litigation before the U.S. Supreme Court, and judicial behavior. Previous publications include the book chapters “Women in the 107th Congress: The Past Meets the Future” (coauthored with Sue Thomas and Beth Stark) and “Women in Congress: Descriptive Representation and Democratic Governance” and the journal article “Feminism and Pornography in the Twenty-First Century: The Internet's Impact on the Feminist Pornography Debate.”

    Sue Davis is an associate professor and chair of the Political Science Department at Denison University. She earned her Ph.D. from Emory University and has authored books and articles on the post-Soviet region including the books Trade Unions in Russia and Ukraine: 1985–95 and The Russian Far East: The Last Frontier? and the journal article “Elections, Legitimacy, Media and Democracy: The Case of Georgia.”

    Melissa Deckman is an associate professor of political science and the Louis L. Goldstein Associate Professor in Public Affairs at Washington College, in Chestertown, Maryland. She earned her Ph.D. in political science from American University in 1999. She writes in the areas of gender politics and religion and politics and is the coauthor of Women With a Mission: Gender, Religion, and the Politics of Women Clergy (with Laura Olson and Sue E. S. Crawford) and Women and Politics: Paths to Power and Political Influence (with Julie Dolan and Michele Swers).

    Vanaja Dhruvarajan is an adjunct professor at Carleton University in the Pauline Jewett Institute for Women's Studies. She completed her undergraduate education in India in 1959 and got her master's and doctoral degrees from the University of Chicago in 1964 and 1981, respectively. Her teaching and research interests include globalization, family and socialization, gender, antiracism, and knowledge monopolies. She has done research in India and Canada and has published several books, book chapters, and articles, including the book Hindu Women and the Power of Ideology, the book chapter “Religion, Spirituality and Feminism,” the journal article “Hinduism, Empowerment of Women and Development in India,” and an unpublished paper “Athanoor All-Women Panchayat 2001–2004: A Case Study.”

    Bette J. Dickerson is an associate professor of sociology at American University. She received her Ph.D. from Washington State University. Her research interests include the sociohistorical construction of race/ethnicity and gender identities, collective memory and public history, and comparative perspectives on aging and sexuality. She is a former president of the Association of Black Sociologists.

    Julie Dolan is an associate professor of political science at Macalester College in St. Paul, Minnesota. She received her B.A. in political science from St. Olaf College and received her Ph.D. in political science from American University. She has authored or coauthored six books and numerous journal articles. Her most recent book is Women and Politics: Paths to Power and Political Influence. Her journal articles appear in PS: Political Science and Politics, Public Administration Review, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Women & Politics, and Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics. Her research interests include women and politics, executive and bureaucratic politics, and representative bureaucracy. In 2007 she received the Erika Fairchild Award from the Women's Caucus of the Southern Political Science Association and was awarded the Rita Mae Kelly Distinguished Research Award from the American Society for Public Administration in 2004.

    Georgia Duerst-Lahti is a professor of political science at Beloit College. Throughout her career she has researched questions related to gender, power, and leadership in the executive branch and Congress as well as in campaigns and elections. Her most prominent work on leadership remains her book with Rita Mae Kelly, Gender Power, Leadership, and Governance. She also has explored gender as political ideology in many chapters, articles, and the coauthored book, Creating Gender: The Sexual Politics of Welfare Policy (with Cathy Marie Johnson and Noelle H. Norton). She currently is focusing on gender and empowerment through the fair trade movement.

    Paula Fleshman is a research and evaluation analyst with the Girl Scout Research Institute. She is responsible for original and secondary research studies on topics relating to girls’ healthy development and leadership, such as Change It Up! What Girls Say About Redefining Leadership and The New Normal? What Girls Say About Healthy Living. She is a doctoral candidate in urban education at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York and has a master's degree in statistics from Virginia Tech.

    Stephenie Foster is senior vice president for government affairs at American Legacy Foundation and serves as a senior advisor to Vital Voices Global Partnership. She has more than 25 years’ experience in the policy arena, serving in senior positions in government, the nonprofit sector, campaigns, and private law practice. Foster has participated in numerous international programs globally, including programs in Africa, Latin America, the Middle East, Asia, and Europe. Foster received a J.D. from the University of Pennsylvania, an M.R.P. from Cornell University, and a B.A. from the University of California. She is also a professorial lecturer at American University in Washington, D.C.

    Peter L. Francia is an associate professor in the Department of Political Science at East Carolina University. He has published numerous works on interest groups, campaign finance, and U.S. elections, including the forthcoming edited volume, Guide to Interest Groups and Lobbying, and his most recent book, Conventional Wisdom and American Elections: Exploding Myths, Exploring Misconceptions. His research has also appeared in several academic journals, including Public Opinion Quarterly, Political Research Quarterly, Social Science Quarterly, American Politics Research, and Women & Politics. He received his Ph.D. in 2000 from the Department of Government and Politics at the University of Maryland.

    Juley Fulcher is the director of policy programs at Break the Cycle, where she oversees local direct services and national policy initiatives. She is also a part-time faculty member in the Women's Studies Department at Georgetown University. Fulcher received her Ph.D. in social psychology from The Johns Hopkins University and her J.D. from the Georgetown University Law Center. Fulcher is the chair of the board of directors of the DC Coalition Against Domestic Violence. She served as a Women's Law and Public Policy Fellow and Visiting Professor for the Georgetown Domestic Violence Clinic and was the public policy director for the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence. Fulcher played a strong leadership role in the drafting and passage of the Violence Against Women Acts in 2000 and 2005 and has testified before Congress on multiple occasions. Under a fellowship from the Japan Society, she researched the systems in Japan for addressing domestic and sexual violence.

    Yvonne Galligan lectures in the School of Politics, International Studies and Philosophy at Queen's University Belfast. Her research interests include gender politics in Europe, political participation and representation, and democratic decision making. She has published widely in these areas. Her most recent book (coauthored with Sara Clavero and Marina Calloni) is Gender Politics and Democracy in Post-Socialist Europe.

    Joyce Gelb is a professor of political science at City College and the Graduate Center, City University of New York. She writes and lectures about women, politics, and public policy in comparative perspective. She is the author of Gender Policies in Japan and the United States: Comparing Women's Movements, Rights and Politics. Her most recent book (coedited with Marian Lief Palley) is Women and Politics Around the World.

    Judith Gentleman is a professor in the International Security Studies Department at Air War College. She previously was an associate professor in the Department of Political Science at the University of New Hampshire. She was a Fulbright scholar at both the Universidad de los Andes in Bogotá and at El Colegio de Mexico in Mexico City. She was also a research fellow at the Center for U.S. Mexican Studies, University of California, San Diego. She earned her Ph.D. in political science at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Her work has focused upon Latin America with particular emphasis on Mexico, the Andes, and Argentina.

    Didi Goldenhar is a consultant to the nonprofit sector, focusing on leadership development and change initiatives in the areas of urban education, the environment, and women's leadership. She serves as a senior consultant to Advancing Women Professionals and the Jewish Community and is coauthor (with Shifra Bronznick and Marty Linsky) of Leveling the Playing Field. She is a member of the Leading Change Working Group based at the Hauser Center for Nonprofits at Harvard University's Kennedy School. She holds an M.S. degree in business and public policy from the State University of New York at Stony Brook.

    Shaina Goodman is currently a student in a joint graduate degree program in law and social work at Washington University in St. Louis. She has a B.A. in Women's and Gender Studies, also from Washington University. Goodman's research background is primarily on domestic violence in the American Jewish community, examining how Jewish cultural values impact the experiences of survivors in recognizing their abuse and seeking resources. She has also done research on the potential efficacy of using dance movement therapy with children who have witnessed domestic violence. Additionally, Goodman is interested in initiatives to address relationship and sexual violence on university campuses and to involve college-aged youth in the domestic violence movement.

    Heidi Grappendorf is an assistant professor at North Carolina State University. She completed her Ph.D. in health, physical education, and recreation, with a concentration in sport administration from the University of New Mexico. Grappendorf was a coeditor (with Mary A. Hums and Glenna G. Bower) of, as well as writer of several chapters in, the book Women as Leaders in Sport: Impact and Influence. Grappendorf has also authored and coauthored numerous journal articles. Further, she is vice president for the National Association for Girls and Women in Sport. Her research interests include the reasons for the under-representation of women in sport leadership, with a particular emphasis on role congruity theory.

    Mary W. Gray is a statistician and lawyer whose areas of research include applications of statistics to human rights, economic equity, and education. The chair of the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at American University, she is the founder of the Association for Women in Mathematics, former vice president of the American Mathematical Society, a fellow of the American Statistical Association and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a recipient of the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science, Engineering and Mathematics Mentoring as well as honorary degrees from three institutions. The author of two books and more than 70 articles, she has lectured throughout the United States, Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East.

    Natalie Greene is a candidate for a master's degree in library science with a concentration in archives and records management at the University of Maryland. She graduated from American University with a B.A. in political science and completed a certificate in women, policy, and political leadership from the Women & Politics Institute at American University. Her honors capstone was an extensive study of women and television, generated from research gathered during her tenure as a teaching assistant of a course on women's political and legal leadership in the media. She worked at the Women & Politics Institute for 4 years, serving as research and editorial assistant to Karen O'Connor. She is also the managing editor for this handbook.

    Denise A. Guerin is a Morse-Alumni Distinguished Professor and director of interior design at the University of Minnesota. She earned bachelor's, master's, and Ph.D. degrees in interior design. She teaches undergraduate studios, ethics and professional practice, and interior design research methods and advises both master's and Ph.D. students. Guerin's research focuses on postoccupancy evaluation in sustainable buildings and implementation of evidence-based design in practice. She has served as president and vice president of the Interior Design Educators Council Foundation, on several task forces for National Council for Interior Design Qualification (NCIDQ), and as editor of Journal of Interior Design. Currently, she serves as a Council for Interior Design Accreditation site visitor and actively participates in Minnesota's interior design practice legislation efforts. She is coauthor (with Caren S. Martin) of The Interior Design Profession's Body of Knowledge: Its Definition and Documentation and is coordinator of InformeDesign(r). Guerin is a recipient of the International Interior Design Association's Michael Tatum Excellence in Education Award, NCIDQ's Louis Tregue Award, and the American Society of Interior Designers Distinguished Educator for 2007.

    Jane Hall is an associate professor in the School of Communication at American University in Washington, D.C. She specializes in teaching and writing about politics and the media, the depiction of women in media and politics, and young people and the news. From 1989 to 1997 she covered women in TV news as an award-winning media reporter for the Los Angeles Times in New York. She has been a regular contributor to Columbia Journalism Review, the Harvard International Journal of Press and Politics, the Freedom Forum Media Studies Journal, and other publications. She is also a TV commentator on the media.

    Irene Harwarth earned her Ph.D. in public administration from The George Washington University in 1998. She initiated a line of research on women's colleges while at the Institute for Postsecondary Education, Libraries and Lifelong Learning at the former Office of Educational Research and Improvement at the U.S. Department of Education. She is an author of Women's Colleges, History, Issues and Challenges and A Closer Look at Women's Colleges.

    Cecilia M. Herles is assistant director of the Institute for Women's Studies at The University of Georgia. She holds degrees in philosophy and English from Clemson University. She earned her Ph.D. in philosophy and graduate certificates in Women's Studies and environmental ethics from The University of Georgia. During her time in graduate school, she spent 2 years working as an assistant on the journal Ethics and the Environment. She has received recognition for her teaching and enjoys teaching her classes on feminist theories and women and the environment. Herles's research examines feminist philosophies, environmental ethics, and philosophies of race. Her work has been published in the Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy, International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies, and Women's Studies International Forum. She has presented numerous papers at conferences in the United States and abroad. Her current research focuses on natural disasters, global climate change, population, and activism.

    Mary Hogue is on the faculty in the Management and Information Systems Department at Kent State University and teaches undergraduate and graduate level courses in leadership. She earned her Ph.D. from the University of Akron in industrial and organizational psychology, and her research examines status issues at work, with one stream exploring the effects of status on women's reduced opportunities to lead relative to men.

    Melanie M. Hughes is an assistant professor of sociology at the University of Pittsburgh. She has published numerous articles on the topic of gender and politics in journals such as American Sociological Review, Politics & Gender, Social Problems, Annual Review of Sociology, and the International Journal of Sociology. Recently, she coauthored (with Pamela Paxton) a textbook titled Women, Politics, and Power: A Global Perspective. Much of her current scholarship focuses on the intersection of gender and minority status in national legislatures around the world. She is also researching growth and change over time in women's international organizations.

    Mary A. Hums is a professor of sport administration at the University of Louisville and an internationally recognized sport management author and lecturer. She earned her doctorate in sport management from The Ohio State University. Her scholarly work focuses on sport for people with disabilities and sport and human rights. Hums worked the Olympic Games in Athens and the Paralympic Games in Vancouver, Athens, Salt Lake City, and Atlanta. She was an Erasmus Mundus International Visiting Scholar in Leuven, Belgium; the Earle F. Ziegler Lecturer for the North American Society for Sport Management; a research fellow with the Center for Sport in Society; and a member of the International Olympic Academy Participants Association. She was a cocontributor to Article 30.5 of the 2006 UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Hums is a member of the Indiana ASA Softball Hall of Fame and the Marian High School (Mishawaka, Indiana) Athletic Hall of Fame.

    Mary E. Hunt is codirector of the Women's Alliance for Theology, Ethics and Ritual (WATER) in Silver Spring, Maryland and a Catholic feminist theologian. She received a Ph.D. from the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, where she also received the master of divinity degree from the Jesuit School of Theology. She is active in the women-church movement. Hunt has published extensively and is the editor of A Guide for Women in Religion: Making Your Way From A to Z.

    Kathleen Iannello is associate professor of political science at Gettysburg College. She teaches courses in American government, gender and American politics, and feminist political theory. Her research interests include women's leadership, women's political participation in state governments, and the role of women's caucuses in state legislatures. She has also written a book and several articles on feminist organizations. She earned a Ph.D. in political science from Pennsylvania State University and has taught at the University of Vermont and Dartmouth College.

    Reshma Jagsi is assistant professor in the Department of Radiation Oncology at the University of Michigan. She completed her undergraduate and medical education at Harvard University and received a second doctorate in social studies at Oxford University. She is a practicing oncologist and researcher who has conducted a number of studies of women's representation in the senior ranks of academic medicine, barriers to their advancement, and interventions intended to increase their representation. She is the recipient of numerous awards recognizing her work, including the Joan F. Giambalvo Memorial Award from the American Medical Association, and she continues her research into these issues as a physician faculty scholar of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

    Gaetane Jean-Marie is associate professor of educational administration, curriculum, and supervision in the Department of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies at the University of Oklahoma. Her research focuses on urban school reform, educational equity, leadership for social justice, and women and educational leadership. Her work has been published in the Journal of School Leadership, The Educational Forum, Journal of Educational Administration, Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, International Electronic Journal for Leadership in Learning, Advancing Women in Leadership, and Journal of Women in Educational Leadership, among other refereed academic journals. She was a contributor to Urban Education: An Encyclopedia and has a chapter in Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Triumphs, Troubles and Taboos.

    Karen Kelly is an associate professor of nursing at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, where she also earned an Ed.D. Kelly teaches graduate courses in health policy and in health care and nursing administration in the School of Nursing. She has more than 15 years of experience in educational and health care leadership positions and holds certification from the American Nurses Credentialing Center as a Nurse Executive, Advanced. Kelly has served in elected and appointed leadership positions in several professional organizations at the state and national levels. She has published numerous journal articles and book chapters on topics in nursing leadership and administration.

    Shirley Key is an associate professor of secondary science education at the University of Memphis. Key earned her doctor of education in science education from the University of Houston. She currently serves as the director of middle school and secondary education programs at the University of Memphis. She has held the positions of the director of multicultural education for the National Science Teachers Association, president of the National Association of Multicultural Science Educators, and the National Association of Biology Teachers chair of the Role & Status of Women in Biology Education section. Her research focuses on the achievement of students of color in science using the inquiries student's culture, cognitive processes, pre-service, and in-service students’ education.

    Clara Sue Kidwell is director of the American Indian Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She was formerly director of the Native American Studies program and professor of history at the University of Oklahoma. Her tribal affiliations are Choctaw and Chippewa. She has published Choctaws and Missionaries in Mississippi, 1818–1918 and A Native American Theology and coauthored (with Homer Noley and George Tinker) The Choctaws in Oklahoma: From Tribe to Nation 1855–1970.

    Marla H. Kohlman is associate professor and chair of the Department of Sociology at Kenyon College. She has a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Maryland, a J.D. from the Washington College of Law at American University, and an M.S. in law and justice from the School of Public Affairs at American University. Kohlman's primary area of research is intersectionality in the experience and reporting of sexual harassment and sexual assault. She is currently in the final stages of completing her writing on race and gender differences in the reporting of sexual harassment in the labor market and the military, a project partially funded by a 2006–2007 American Association of University Women Educational Foundation Fellowship.

    Teresa L. Larkin is an associate professor of physics education and faculty liaison to the pre-engineering program at American University. She received her Ph.D. in curriculum and instruction with emphasis in physics and science education from Kansas State University. Larkin has published widely on topics related to the assessment of student learning in introductory physics and engineering courses. She has been an active member of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) for 25 years. Larkin served on the board of directors for ASEE from 1997 to 1999 as chair of Professional Interest Council (PIC) III and as vice president of PICs. Larkin has received numerous national and international awards, including the ASEE Distinguished Educator and Service Award from the Physics and Engineering Physics Division in 1998. In 2000–2001 she served as a National Science Foundation ASEE visiting scholar.

    Jennifer L. Lawless is an associate professor of government and director of the Women & Politics Institute at American University. She received her Ph.D. in political science from Stanford University. A nationally recognized expert on women's involvement in politics, she is coauthor (with Richard L. Fox) of the book It Takes a Candidate: Why Women Don't Run for Office. She has also published numerous articles in political science journals and has issued two policy reports on the barriers that impede women's candidate emergence. In 2006 she sought the Democratic nomination for the U.S. House of Representatives in Rhode Island's Second Congressional District. Although she lost the race, she is very active in politics. Recently, she joined the national board of Emerge America.

    Patricia Lengermann earned her Ph.D. at Cornell University and is research professor of sociology at The George Washington University. Her research interests are sociological theory, history of sociology, and women in sociology. She is past chair of the American Sociological Association section on the history of sociology.

    Theresa Loar has 30 years of international experience in the public and private sectors. From 1994 through 2001, she worked at the highest levels of the U.S. government to promote women's human rights, with executive level diplomatic appointments in the White House and the State Department. She played a leadership role in U.S. preparations for and follow-up to the UN Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing. As director of the President's Interagency Council on Women and Senior Coordinator for International Women's Issues, she was instrumental in helping to shape policy to combat human trafficking. She was also director of the Vital Voices initiative at the State Department and a cofounder and founding president of the Vital Voices Global Partnership. Loar was a tenured Foreign Service Officer. Currently, she is an executive with a Fortune 500 company.

    Rachel Lumsden is currently a chancellor's fellow at the Graduate Center, City University of New York (CUNY), where she is pursuing a Ph.D. in music theory as well as the certificate in Women's Studies. She also teaches music courses at Brooklyn College. She received two master's degrees—in music performance and music theory—from Queens College (CUNY). As a flutist, she has performed in various venues across the United States, including Alice Tully Hall, the Carpenter Center for the Performing Arts, and the Cynthia Woods Mitchell Pavilion.

    Susan R. Madsen is an associate professor of management in the Woodbury School of Business at Utah Valley University. She received her doctorate degree in human resource development from the University of Minnesota in 2001. She has spent years researching the lifetime development of high-profile women leaders in the United States, United Arab Emirates, and China. Madsen has authored two leadership books and authored or coauthored more than 50 journal articles. Her research focuses on women and leadership, ethics, readiness for change, transformational learning, and work–life integration.

    Carolyn B. Maloney was elected to New York's Fourteenth Congressional District (parts of Manhattan and Queens) in the House of Representatives in 1992, the so-called Year of the Woman. She is chair of the Joint Economic Committee, senior member of both the House Financial Services Committee and the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee, and former cochair of the Congressional Caucus on Women's Issues. Maloney has passed numerous bills to improve the lives of women and families. Her work on antirape legislation was the basis of a Lifetime television movie, A Life Interrupted. She also reintroduces the equal rights amendment (ERA) in each new Congress.

    Linda Kay Mancillas is a 2010 Congressional Legislative Fellow for the Women's Research and Education Institute and is assigned to the office of Representative Bobby Scott (D-VA). In 2010, Mancillas was awarded a Ph.D. and M.A. in political science from American University in Washington, D.C. Mancillas teaches American government, Latina/o politics, and Women and Gender Studies. She received the American University campuswide 2008 Alice Paul Award and the 2005 Women & Politics Institute's Outstanding Graduate Student Award. Mancillas holds a bachelor's degree in political science and in Women's Studies from the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB). She was awarded the UAB Department of Government and Public Service Outstanding Undergraduate Award, the Outstanding Woman UAB Student Award, the Mary Wollstonecraft Prize, and the Women's Studies Award of Excellence for her scholarship.

    Carole McCann is director and associate professor of Gender and Women's Studies, University of Maryland, Baltimore County. She holds a Ph.D. in the history of consciousness from the University of California, Santa Cruz. Her scholarship focuses on issues, feminist science studies, 20th-century history of birth control, eugenics, and population. She has published one book on these topics, Birth Control Politics in the United States, 1916–1945, and is currently working on a book about masculinities in mid-century population sciences. She has also coedited (with Seungkyung Kim) an anthology of contemporary feminist theory, Feminist Theory Reader: Local and Global Perspectives.

    Eileen McDonagh is a professor of political science at Northeastern University and a visiting scholar at the Institute for Quantitative Social Science at Harvard University. She is the author of The Motherless State: Women's Political Leadership and American Democracy, Playing With the Boys: Why Separate Is Not Equal in Sports (coauthored with Laura Pappano) and Breaking the Abortion Deadlock. She was a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University and has received numerous grants, including those from the National Science Foundation and the American Association of University Women. She has written extensively on gender and political issues, focusing on women's political representation, reproductive rights, and American political development. Her articles have appeared in leading journals, including the American Political Science Review, American Journal of Political Science, and Studies in American Political Development. She has been president of the Politics and History Section and of the Women and Politics Section of the American Political Science Association.

    Meghan O'Connor McDonogh is the assistant athletic director and head women's lacrosse coach at The Catholic University of America. She is currently completing her doctorate in educational leadership and organization development with a concentration in sports administration from the University of Louisville and is examining the rise and fall of the Women's United Soccer Association (WUSA). She interned and worked for the WUSA, has served on the board of governors and board of directors for U.S. Lacrosse, and currently serves on the board of directors for the Intercollegiate Women's Lacrosse Coaches Association.

    Mékell T. Mikell received a Ph.D. in political science, an M.A. in international studies, and a graduate certificate in Women and Gender Studies from the University of South Carolina. She also graduated with a B.A. in broadcast news from The University of Georgia. Before graduate school, Mikell worked on the air and behind the scenes in television and radio. Actively involved in state politics, Mikell worked on several issue and political campaigns in South Carolina, including the ONE Campaign and Hillary Rodham Clinton's presidential campaign. Currently, she is working on the Repower America campaign as a communications director.

    Stephanie Moody is a Ph.D. student in the Joint Program of English and Education at the University of Michigan. She is a former high school English teacher and currently teaches undergraduate courses for pre-service students. Moody is a member of the International Association for the Study of Popular Romance, and her research interests include readers’ perceptions of gender construction in contemporary romance novels. Moody is an avid romance reader and aims to contribute to current romance scholarship by complicating the ways the romance genre and its readers are perceived and theorized.

    Dorothy Perrin Moore is an emeritus professor of business administration at the Citadel School of Business, where she held the title of Distinguished Professor of Entrepreneurship. She is the author of Careerpreneurs: Lessons From Leading Women Entrepreneurs on Building a Career Without Boundaries, which received the ForeWord Magazine Business Book-of-the-Year Gold Award. She is the coauthor of Women Entrepreneurs: Moving Beyond the Glass Ceiling and has published some 62 refereed journal articles, book chapters, proceedings, and technical reports. A former entrepreneur, she received her Ph.D. in management, organizational behavior, and human resource management from the Darla Moore School of Business, University of South Carolina. She is a recipient of two awards from the Academy of Management, Women in Management Division, and is a Justin G. Longenecker Fellow in the United States Association of Small Business and Entrepreneurship. Her most recent book (coauthored with Jamie W. Moore), Island in the Storm: Sullivan's Island and Hurricane Hugo, earned the BronzeAward in the 2006 ForeWord Magazine Book-of-the-Year awards for regional works.

    Hasna Jasimuddin Moudud received her B.A. from Dhaka University in 1965 and an M.A. in English from the University of Dayton in 1969. She taught at Dhaka University and was a visiting scholar at the University of Oxford, the Elliott School of International Affairs at The George Washington University, and at the University of Development Alternatives in Bangladesh. From 1987 to 1990 she was a member of the Bangladesh Parliament and later was a consultant at the World Bank. Moudud received the UNEP Global 500 Environmental Award in 1992, the Role Model for Women in Bangladesh by SAARC Women Entrepreneurs Council in Sri Lanka in 2001, and the Vishudhananda Gold Medal for Peace in 2003. Moudud is author of several books, including Women in China and A Thousand Year Old Bengali Mystic Poetry, and editor of Forest in Cloud, a poetry collection. Currently she is writing Where Women Rule: South Asia.

    Medha Nanivadekar is the director of the Center for Women's Studies at Shivaji University in Kolhapur, India; an adjunct faculty member at the Women & Politics Institute at American University; and the national president of Bharatiya Stree Shakti, an all-Indian women's organization. She holds a doctorate in political science from the University of Pune. She was a Fulbright senior scholar in the American Political Science Association's Congressional Fellowship Program, was appointed as the UN expert on women and politics, and was awarded fellowships at the Shastri Indo-Canadian Institute and the Salzburg Seminar Foundation. She has worked as a gender expert on a number of Government of India committees. Nanivadekar has edited a volume on women's movements in Maharashtra, published research reports and several research articles on women and politics, and has put forth the Win-Win Formula to resolve the 14-year deadlock over women's quotas in the Indian Parliament.

    Rae Nicholl teaches New Zealand politics and government to international students at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. Previously, she spent 6 years lecturing in political leadership, media politics, and women's politics at the University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji Islands. In 2001–2002, she spent a period as Fulbright scholar-in-residence at American University in Washington, D.C., and simultaneously worked as a legislative fellow in the U.S. Congress. She wrote her Ph.D. thesis on women and candidate selection in New Zealand, Guam, and South Africa.

    Jana Nidiffer is an associate professor and chair of the Department of Educational Leadership at Oakland University, where she teaches courses on current, historical, gender-related, and methodological issues of higher education. After earning her doctorate from the Harvard Graduate School of Education, she was a faculty member and later the Jean W. Campbell Scholar at the Center for the Education of Women at the University of Michigan. Nidiffer's primary research interest is in access and opportunity in higher education from a historical perspective. She has also written on the history of university administration, the declining access of poor students, women's issues, and the historiographical challenges of the researching the poor. Her books include Beating the Odds: How the Poor Get to College (coauthored with Arthur Levine), Pioneering Deans of Women: More Than Wise and Pious Matrons, and Women Administrators in Higher Education: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. She has published in History of Education Quarterly and American Educational Research Journal, among others.

    Gillian Niebrugge earned her Ph.D. at the University of Kansas and is scholar-in-residence at American University. Her research interests are the history of sociology, sociological theory, and gender. She is the founder of the American Sociological Association section on the history of sociology.

    Dawn Nowacki is a professor of political science at Linfield College, in McMinnville, Oregon. During the 1980s she worked as a staff analyst for Radio Liberty's Soviet Area Audience and Opinion Research Department and as an editor for Central Asian Survey. Her research has focused on the election of women to Russian federal and regional parliaments and more recently on women and war. Her publications include contributions to Women's Access to Political Power in Post Communist Europe (edited by Richard E. Matland and Kathleen Montgomery) and Discipline and Punishment in Global Politics: Illusions of Control (edited by Janie Leatherman).

    Erin E. O'Brien is an assistant professor of political science at the University of Massachusetts Boston and faculty affiliate in the McCormack School of Policy Studies. She is author of The Politics of Identity: Solidarity Building Among America's Working Poor and coeditor of Diversity in Contemporary American Politics and Government. Her work appears in the American Journal of Political Science, Women & Politics, and she has written numerous book chapters. She is past president of the Southern Political Science Women's Caucus and recipient, along with her coauthor, of the 2008 Sophinisba Breckinridge Award for best paper presented on gender-related topics presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.

    Sheila O'Connor-Ambrose is a fellow of the Alexander Hamilton Institute (Clinton, NY). After receiving an H. B. Earhart Fellowship, an Andrew J. Mellon Dissertation Fellowship, and an Emory University Dean's Teaching Fellowship, she earned a Ph.D. in Women's Studies in 2007, completing her dissertation (directed by Elizabeth Fox-Genovese) on marriage in Gail Godwin's writings. She edited Elizabeth Fox-Genovese's Marriage: The Dream That Refuses to Die (published posthumously), and she coedited Explorations and Commitments: Religion, Faith, and Culture, Volume IV of History and Women, Culture and Faith: Selected Writings of Elizabeth Fox-Genovese. O'Connor-Ambrose is a member of the Fellowship of Catholic Scholars and the World Women's Alliance for Life and Family (Rome, Italy). She and Douglas Ambrose, a history professor, codirect the Christopher Dawson Society for the Study of Faith and Reason.

    Frederick Douglass Opie teaches history at Babson College. He is author of Hog and Hominy: Soul Food From Africa to America and Black Labor Migration in Caribbean Guatemala, 1882–1923 and a blogger at, where he conducts “Daily Musings on Culture, History, and Food With Related Recipes.” He has appeared on the popular American Public Media show The Splendid Table and is a regular guest on Philadelphia National Public Radio's The Chef's Table.

    Marian Lief Palley is a professor of political science and international relations at the University of Delaware, where she has served as chair of her department and as director of the Women's Studies Program. She is the author or coauthor of numerous books and articles, including Women and Politics Around the World and Women of Japan and Korea. Her articles have appeared in the Journal of Politics and American Politics Quarterly, among others. Her current research interests include the U.S. health care system and the status of women in the United States and in comparative perspective. She has served as president of the Southern Political Science Association (SPSA), secretary of the American Political Science Association (APSA), president of the Women's Caucus of the APSA, book editor of the Journal of Politics, and on the editorial boards of numerous journals. Palley has been both a Fulbright scholar and a Fulbright senior specialist in Korea. In addition she was awarded the Erica Fairchild Award by the Women's Caucus of the SPSA.

    Barbara Palmer is an associate professor at Baldwin-Wallace College. She received her Ph.D. in political science from the University of Minnesota. Her research with Dennis Simon focuses on how incumbency and redistricting shape the integration of women into Congress, based on an original data set that includes more than 15,000 House and Senate elections and 35,000 candidates from 1956 to 2008. In addition, she has published articles on sex-discrimination law, the impact of Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Sandra Day O'Connor, and judicial decision making. Her teaching and research interests also include American politics, civil rights and liberties, and judicial process. She serves on the board of Running Start, a nonpartisan nonprofit organization that encourages young women to run for office.

    Swapna Pathak is currently pursuing her Ph.D. in political science and a graduate certificate in Women and Gender Studies from University of South Carolina. She was born and raised in India. Before coming to the United States, Pathak received an M.A. in international studies from Jawaharlal University and a B.A. in journalism from the University of Delhi. She also worked with various political think tanks in India and contributed to national dailies. Pathak's current research focuses on the environmental consequences of violent conflicts. She is also interested in the issue of women's rights in India.

    Pamela Paxton is associate professor of sociology and political science (by courtesy) at the University of Texas. Some of her previous research on politics and gender appears in the American Sociological Review, the American Journal of Sociology, and Social Forces. She is coauthor (with Melanie Hughes) of the book Women, Politics, and Power: A Global Perspective. Her current research considers women's political participation over time.

    Lynne Perri is a writer and publication designer. She specializes in visual journalism at American University, where she is a journalist-in-residence in the School of Communication and an affiliate faculty member of the Investigative Reporting Workshop. She teaches the graduate students who create the American Observer online news magazine, plus classes in news design and graphics. She cocreated a class that covered the 2008 presidential primary in New Hampshire; students published stories and reports and developed mini-documentaries on young people and the election. She cowrote Interviewing: A Practical Guide for Citizen Journalists and an introduction to a photo book, Mothers and Children. Perri is a former deputy managing editor for Graphics and Photography at USA TODAY, where she codirected art and photo coverage and wrote feature stories and book reviews. She has been a reporter and editor at newspapers in Florida and Indiana and an adjunct professor at Syracuse University, Northwestern University, the University of Maryland, and the University of South Florida.

    Jamie Pimlott is assistant professor at Niagara University in Niagara Falls, New York. Prior to Niagara University, Pimlott was a research analyst at the Campaign Finance Institute in Washington, D.C. She holds a Ph.D. in political science and a B.A. and M.A. in history from the University of Florida. She teaches courses on women and politics, Congress, political behavior, and campaigns and elections. Her passion for politics comes through in her writing and in the classroom; in 2009 she received the College of Arts & Sciences award for excellence in teaching. She wrote the book Women and the Democratic Party: The Evolution of EMILY's List.

    Gemma Puglisi is an assistant professor in the School of Communication at American University in Washington, D.C. She holds a bachelor's degree in music from Trinity University and a master of arts in drama from The Catholic University. She has more than 25 years of experience working in the broadcast news, public relations, entertainment, and financial sectors. She spent many years at NBC News working in various capacities and on such programs as Today, NBC Nightly News, and Sunday Today, as well as at the network news desk and the New York bureau. She is an award-winning media strategist and producer, and her classes have won recognition from The Washington Post, The Washington Times, the D.C. Mystics, and other organizations. Puglisi is often sought as an expert on crisis public relations, media issues, and women in communications. In 2006, she received the Order of the Star and was knighted by the Republic of Italy for her contributions to education and promoting Italian language and culture.

    Belinda Robnett is an associate professor of sociology at the University of California, Irvine. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Michigan and is author of numerous books and articles, including How Long? How Long? African-American Women in the Struggle for Civil Rights. Her research interests include racial and ethnic inequality, gender relations, and social movements. She seeks to understand how gendered racial hierarchies are formed by and maintained within formal and informal societal institutions, including political organizations and the marriage market, and is equally concerned with how these relations impact institutional and movement outcomes.

    Cindy Simon Rosenthal is director and curator of the Carl Albert Congressional Research and Studies Center at the University of Oklahoma and professor of political science with a joint appointment to the Women's Studies faculty. Her research and teaching interests focus on women in politics, leadership in the public sector and legislatures specifically, state government and intergovernmental relations, and public policy issues involving race and gender inequality. She is the coauthor (with Ron Peters) of a new book, Speaker Nancy Pelosi and the New American Politics.

    Silke Roth is a senior lecturer in sociology in the Division of Sociology and Social Policy at the University of Southampton (UK). Her publications include Building Movement Bridges: The Coalition of Labor Union Women; the edited volume Gender Politics in the Enlarged European Union: Mobilization, Inclusion, Exclusion; and the journal article (coauthored with M. M. Ferree) “Gender, Class and the Interaction Between Social Movements: A Strike of Day Care Workers.”

    Kimberlee Salmond is a senior researcher with the Girl Scout Research Institute. She is responsible for original research studies on topics relating to girls’ safety, health, and development, such as Good Intentions: The Beliefs and Values of Teens and Tweens Today and Change It Up! What Girls Say About Redefining Leadership. Previously, she worked with the Families and Work Institute, Minnesota Legislative Commission on the Economic Status of Women, and National Council for Research on Women. She has a master's degree in public policy from the University of Minnesota and a bachelor's degree from Kalamazoo College in Michigan.

    Joanna Samuels is a rabbi and a writer who was ordained at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America where she was a Wexner Graduate Fellow. She spent 6 years as the spiritual leader of Congregation Habonim in New York City and is currently working on a book about gender and the rabbinate.

    Ronnee Schreiber is an associate professor of political science at San Diego State University. She earned her Ph.D. in political science from Rutgers University in 2000. Schreiber's research interests are in the area of women and politics, particularly women in American political institutions and women and public policy. Schreiber's book Righting Feminism: Conservative Women and American Politics examines how conservative women at the elite level seek legitimacy as representatives of women's interests. In addition to her book, she has published a number of articles that examine women in Congress, how feminist organizations adapt to conservative political climates, and how conservative women challenge feminist understandings of gender consciousness. Schreiber's work has also been featured on National Public Radio,, Pacifica Radio, Sirius Radio, and various other media outlets. Schreiber has also worked as a lobbyist and political organizer for national feminist organizations.

    Shauna Lani Shames is a Ph.D. candidate in American government at Harvard University. Her academic areas of interest include the study of race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, religion, and feminism. She has authored articles, reports, book chapters, and conference papers on women as candidates, women's leadership, public opinion, and gendered policy issues. She worked for several years as research director of the White House Project, a national nonprofit women's leadership advocacy organization, and also served as assistant to the president of the National Organization for Women (NOW). She is a former member of the national NOW board of directors.

    Jennifer Shea earned her Ph.D. in public policy from the John W. McCormack Graduate School of Policy Studies, University of Massachusetts Boston, and is currently assistant professor in the Department of Public Administration at San Francisco State University, where she teaches and researches in the areas of leadership, nonprofit management, and public policy.

    Jolynn Shoemaker is the executive director of Women in International Security at Georgetown University. Previously, she handled international law and policy issues for the Institute for Inclusive Security, an initiative of the Hunt Alternatives Fund. She served as country director in the Office of the Secretary of Defense, International Security Policy (Eurasia). As a Presidential Management Fellow, she was the regional advisor for Southern and East Africa at the U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, Office of Country Reports and Asylum Affairs. She also worked as an attorney in the U.S. Department of Defense, General Counsel's Office for International Affairs. Shoemaker has a J.D. and an M.A. (Security Studies) from Georgetown University. She has published on women and conflict, legal reform in postconflict situations, human rights, and women in peacekeeping. She is a member of the New York Bar.

    Dennis Simon is the Altshuler Distinguished Teaching Professor in the Department of Political Science at Southern Methodist University. He received his Ph.D. in political science from Michigan State University. His research with Barbara Palmer focuses on how incumbency and redistricting shape the integration of women into Congress, based on an original data set that includes more than 15,000 House and Senate elections and 35,000 candidates from 1956 to 2008. In addition, he has written works on the evolution of popular and legislative leadership in the American presidency and the history of electoral and ideological change in the South. His teaching and research interests also include the history and politics of the civil rights movement, presidential-congressional relations, public opinion, electoral behavior, and research methodology.

    Rosemarie Skaine is a sociologist who received her M.A. in 1977 from the University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls. She has a B.A. from the University of South Dakota, Vermillion, and an M.A. from the University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls. Skaine is the author of 11 books and several authored and coauthored national and international journal articles. Her most recent works are Women of Afghanistan in the Post-Taliban Era, Women Political Leaders in Africa, Female Suicide Bombers, and Female Genital Mutilation: Legal, Cultural and Medical Issues.

    Wendy Slatkin teaches at California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. She was awarded a Ph.D. in art history from the University of Pennsylvania in 1976 and has taught art history for more than 25 years in a number of academic institutions, including Rutgers University; University of California, Riverside; and University of Redlands. Slatkin has published numerous scholarly articles and essays. She is the author of Women Artists in History: From Antiquity to the Present. She has edited and annotated a selection of primary sources by women artists, The Voices of Women Artists. Her most recent project, currently in production, is In Her Own Words: A Primary Sourcebook of Autobiographical Texts by Women Artists, From the 19th Century to the Present.

    Wendy G. Smooth is assistant professor in the Women's Studies Department and the Political Science Department at The Ohio State University. She also holds a faculty appointment with the Kirwan Institute for the study of race and ethnicity. Her research and teaching interests are in U.S. politics with particular emphasis on gender and public policy, racial politics, and state and local government. Her work appears in several academic journals, including Politics & Gender and Journal of Women, Politics & Policy, and in various edited volumes. Her current research focuses on the impact of gender and race in state legislatures. She examines the ways in which institutions preference gender and racial norms through their institutional arrangements, norms, preferences and day-to-day operating procedures. She is currently completing a book titled Power and Influence: The Impact of Race and Gender in American State Legislatures.

    Dorothy Allred Solomon is an instructor in the Lifelong Learning program at the University of Utah. She has a unique perspective on Mormon women. Born into a polygamous household to the father of 48 children and his fourth wife, she left her fundamentalist roots, joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and married monogamously. She has a bachelor's degree in literature, theater, and communication and a master's degree in literature and creative writing, both from the University of Utah. Her writing has received several awards, including the 2004 WILLA, the Utah State Publishing Prize, and three first prizes from the Utah Arts Council; distinguished journalism awards from Sigma Delta Chi and the American Academy of Pediatrics; and a Governor's Media Award for Excellence. Solomon is the author of The Sisterhood: Inside the Lives of Mormon Women; In My Father's House; Predators, Prey and Other Kinfolk: Growing Up in Polygamy; and Daughter of the Saints.

    Ahmed E. Souaiaia is a professor of Arabic, Islamic, and international studies. He teaches a variety of courses in Religious Studies, College of Law, and International Programs at the University of Iowa. He earned his Ph.D. from the University of Washington (Seattle) where he had also taught for 4 years. He is the author of a number of books, journal articles, and essays—including his recent book Contesting Justice: Women, Islam, Law, and Society.

    Carolyn M. Stephenson has been a faculty member in the Political Science Department of the University of Hawai'i at Manoa since 1985. She is also a member of the Program on Conflict Resolution and directs the Hawai'i Model United Nations. Prior to that she was director of Peace Studies at Colgate University. She received her B.A. from Mount Holyoke College, a women's college, after a women's elementary and high school education. She attended all four of the UN conferences on women (1975, 1980, 1985, and 1995) and served as Rapporteur for the UN Expert Group on Gender, Decision-making and Conflict Resolution. She was a Fulbright scholar in Cyprus in 2002, and currently serves as chair of the international organization section of the International Studies Association. She has published on alternative methods for international security, on nongovernmental organizations at the United Nations, on gender and peace, and on peace studies.

    Judith Hicks Stiehm, Ph.D. Columbia University, is a professor of political science at Florida International University where she served as provost and academic vice president for 4 years. She has taught at San Francisco State, the University of Wisconsin, UCLA, and the University of Southern California. She has been a visiting professor at the U.S. Army Peacekeeping Institute and at the Strategic Studies Institute at Carlisle Barracks. Her books include Nonviolent Power: Active and Passive Resistance, Bring Me Men and Women: Mandated Change at the U.S. Air Force Academy, Arms and the Enlisted Woman, It's Our Military Too! Women and the U.S. Military, The U.S. Army War College: Military Education in a Democracy, and Champions for Peace: Women Winners of the Nobel Prize for Peace. Stiehm will serve as Distinguished Visiting Professor at the Air Force Academy 2010–2011.

    Camilla Stivers is Distinguished Professor Emerita, Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs, Cleveland State University. She holds a Ph.D. in public administration and policy from Virginia Tech. Her research interests include the role of gender in public life, citizen participation, and the philosophy of public administration. Her books include Bureau Men, Settlement Women: Constructing Public Administration in the Progressive Era and Gender Images in Public Administration. Her most recent publication is Governance in Dark Times: Practical Philosophy for Public Service. Her career includes nearly 20 years as a manager in community-based nonprofit organizations.

    Sue Thomas is senior policy researcher for the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation (PIRE). An expert on women officeholders, Thomas received her Ph.D. from the University of Nebraska in 1989 and has published widely since on the topic, including books, journal articles, encyclopedia entries, and book reviews. Among her publications are two widely recognized books: How Women Legislate and Women and Elective Office: Past, Present and Future. Before joining PIRE, Thomas was associate professor of government and director of Women's Studies at Georgetown University. She also currently teaches courses on women and politics at University of California, Santa Cruz, and serves as an associate editor and book editor of the political science journal Politics & Gender. Prior to her academic career, Thomas worked as a legislative advocate in California on behalf of women's issues.

    Catherine H. Tinsley is an associate professor at the McDonough School of Business at Georgetown University and the executive director of the Georgetown University Women's Leadership Initiative. She currently serves on two committees for the National Academy of Sciences: the Committee to Improve Intelligence Analysis for National Security and the Committee on Unifying Social Frameworks. She is a Center for Program/Project Management Research fellow for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and a Zaeslin fellow at the College of Law and Economics, University of Basel. She has received several grants from NASA, the National Science Foundation, and the Department of Homeland Security for her work on decision making and risk and from the U.S. Department of Defense and Army Research Office for her work on modeling culture's influence on negotiation and collaboration. She studies how culture, reputations, and gender influence negotiation and conflict resolution. She also studies how near miss events influence subsequent decisions under risk.

    Karma Lekshe Tsomo is an associate professor in the Department of Theology and Religious Studies at the University of San Diego, where she teaches Buddhism, world religions, and comparative religious ethics. In 2000 she received a doctorate in philosophy from the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, with research on death and identity in China and Tibet. She is president of Sakyadhita: International Association of Buddhist Women and has cocoordinated 11 international conferences on Buddhist women. She is director of Jamyang Foundation, an educational initiative for girls and women in developing countries. She is the editor of Buddhist Women Across Cultures: Realizations; Innovative Buddhist Women: Swimming Against the Stream; and Buddhist Women and Social Justice: Ideals, Challenges, and Achievements; and the author of Sisters in Solitude: Two Traditions of Monastic Ethics for Women.

    Ming Turner is a lecturer at De Montfort University (U.K.). She received her Ph.D. in art history and theory at Loughborough University (U.K.), researching contemporary Taiwanese women's art with specific focus on postcolonial and feminist theories. She has delivered many research papers to international conferences and also publishes widely in several international journals and publications, including n.paradoxa, The International Journal of the Arts in Society, and INFERNO: Journal of Art History. Turner convened a session, Toward a New Age of Asian Art, at the AAH annual conference in Belfast in April 2007. She curated Simply Screen: Inbetweeners of Asia (Berlin and London, August 2009) and 0&1: Cyberspace and the Myth of Gender (the 501 Contemporary Art Centre, Chongqing, China, April 2010).

    John C. Turpin is an associate professor and chair of the Department of Interior Design at Washington State University. He has a Ph.D. in environmental design and planning (history, theory, criticism) from Arizona State University where he wrote a monograph on Dorothy Draper, a major figure in the development of the interior design profession. His body of work exposes the impoverishing effects of patriarchal trends in art and design criticism by highlighting the neglected contributions of Draper and other talented women who enriched the practice and aesthetic of interior design. Some of his later work offers methods that will assist researchers in uncovering the contributions made by women in the design professions. He has been published in the Journal of Interior Design, Journal of Cultural Research and Art Education, and Intimus: Interior Design Theory Reader and is the coeditor of a new international journal titled Interiors: Design, Architecture and Culture. He served as the 2008–2009 president of the Interior Design Educators Council.

    Jane Tynan is a lecturer in cultural studies at the School of Fashion and Textiles, Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design, London. Her academic background in art and design history led to a Ph.D. at University of the Arts London for which she completed a thesis on the military clothing worn by British soldiers during World War I. Her current research considers the role of fashion design, visual images, and constructions of the body to the formation of social and political discourses. She is currently a member of the Research Centre for Fashion, the Body and Material Cultures at University of the Arts London. Recent publications include work on fashion and gender, feminism and national identity, and masculinities and war.

    Laura van Assendelft is a professor of political science at Mary Baldwin College in Staunton, Virginia. She earned her Ph.D. from Emory University in 1994. van Assendelft has authored numerous articles and several books. Her research interests include women and politics and state and local politics.

    Lisa Pace Vetter earned a Ph.D. in political science at Fordham University. She is the author of “Women's Work” as Political Art: Weaving and Dialectical Politics in Homer, Aristophanes, and Plato and has published articles and book chapters on Harriet Martineau and Alexis de Tocqueville. Vetter's current research focuses on political theory and the origins of American feminism in the writings of Lucretia Mott, Sarah and Angelina Grimké, and other early women's rights activists. She has taught ancient, modern, contemporary, and feminist political theory and interdisciplinary studies at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County and American University.

    Danna L. Walker is a professor of journalism and media studies at American University and a communication researcher who takes a critical and historical approach to studying media and their influence. Her research has uncovered the pivotal role women have taken in the beginnings of the technological revolution in the news media. She has also researched the coverage of women-centered events by the news media, as well as the application of feminist theories in communication. Her award-winning doctoral dissertation focused on women in journalism and the dissident feminist press. She used primary source material to paint a portrait of the founding of the Women's Institute for Freedom of the Press and the decades-long efforts by women to change social structures through media. Walker received her Ph.D. in mass communication from the University of Maryland and has had articles published in academic publications, on Web sites, and in the mainstream media. She has been a reporter, writer, and editor in New York, Washington, D.C., and other cities for an international wire service and for CBS News. As a journalist, she has covered the U.S. Congress and other government agencies.

    Jessica Waters is an assistant professor in the Department of Justice, Law and Society at American University and an adjunct professor at American University Washington College of Law. Waters currently teaches Introduction to Law, Justice Law and the Constitution, Legislation, and Reproduction and the Law. Prior to joining the American University faculty, Waters was a litigator at WilmerHale in Washington, D.C., where she specialized in criminal defense work and appellate reproductive rights cases, including recent Supreme Court cases Ayotte v. Planned Parenthood of Northern New England (2006) and Gonzales v. Carhart (2007). While at WilmerHale, Waters also lobbied on behalf of the American Civil Liberties Union on reproductive rights issues. Waters earned her J.D. from American University Washington College of Law.

    Jon L. Weakley recently earned his bachelor's degree in political science from American University and is currently pursuing a doctoral degree at American University. He has worked for the past 4 years as a research assistant and editor to Karen O'Connor at American University, contributing to or coauthoring several articles and assisting her in preparation of three editions of her textbook American Government: Roots and Reform.

    Georgie Ann Weatherby is an associate professor of sociology and criminal justice at Gonzaga University in Spokane, Washington, and has served as its head mock trial coach since 1997. She received a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Washington in 1990. Her research and teaching focuses on gender, religion, justice, law, crime, and deviant behavior. She has published numerous journal articles, chapters, and a coedited book (with Susan A. Farrell), The Power of Gender in Religion.

    Lois Duke Whitaker is a professor of political science at Georgia Southern University in Statesboro. She is the author of many pieces on women and politics and on U.S. national government, including two edited books of readings, Voting the Gender Gap and Women in Politics: Outsiders or Insiders? Her research interests also include mass media and politics and state and local government. She has taught at the University of South Carolina; the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; the University of San Francisco; Clemson University; and Auburn University, Montgomery. She is a past president of the Women's Caucus for Political Science: South; past president of the South Carolina Political Science Association and the Georgia Political Science Association; and past program vice president for the League of Women Voters of South Carolina. She is the recipient of the Clemson University chapter of the American Association of University Professors Award of Merit for distinctive contributions to the academic profession (1992) and the Georgia Southern University College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences Award of Distinction in Scholarship (2006).

    Renée T. White is a professor of sociology and director of Black Studies at Fairfield University. In 2009 she became the university's first academic coordinator for global citizenship and diversity. She is one of the founding advisory board members of a diversity and social justice residential communities for sophomore students at Fairfield. She teaches courses on AIDS, urban poverty, race and ethnicity, and gender. Her research interests include race theory, reproductive health policy, HIV/AIDS, and urban inequality. She is author of Putting Risk in Perspective: Black Teenage Lives in the Era of AIDS and coeditor of HIV/AIDS: Global Frontiers in Prevention/Intervention; Spoils of War: Women of Color, Cultures, and Revolutions; and Fanon: A Critical Reader. She is also editor of the Journal of HIV/AIDS Prevention in Children & Youth. She received her Ph.D. in sociology from Yale University.

    Laura R. Woliver is a professor in the Department of Political Science and the Women's and Gender Studies Program at the University of South Carolina. She received her undergraduate degree from the University of Colorado in Boulder in 1975. She earned her Ph.D. in political science from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1986. Her expertise is in American politics, women and politics, interest groups, social movements, and reproductive politics. She is the author of two books: From Outrage to Action: The Politics of Grass-Roots Dissent and The Political Geographies of Pregnancy. In addition she has published dozens of articles, book chapters, and comments. She has been the president of the Women's Caucus for Political Science. She is currently the graduate director in the Department of Political Science.

    Alixandra B. Yanus is an assistant professor at High Point University. She is coauthor (with Karen O'Connor and Larry J. Sabato) of Essentials of American Government: Roots and Reform. She has published a number of book chapters and scholarly articles in journals such as Politics & Gender and Justice System Journal. Her research interests are in American politics, specifically the courts, interest groups, and women and politics. She is currently working on a large research project that examines the judiciary's interactions with the media and interest groups.

    Athena Yiamouyiannis joined Ohio University's sports administration faculty in 2006. Previously, Yiamouyiannis served as executive director of the National Association for Girls and Women in Sport where she was instrumental in supporting Title IX and gender equity initiatives. Yiamouyiannis also worked for 10 years at the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), with several years as NCAA director of membership services and liaison to the NCAA Committee on Women's Athletics. Yiamouyiannis continues to conduct research, author publications, and present on Title IX and gender equity issues in sports. She has served on the board of directors for the NACWAA, as executive editor of the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, and coeditor of the Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal. She holds a bachelor's degree in mathematics and a master's in sports management from The Ohio State University and an Ed.D. in higher education administration from The George Washington University.

    Zeina Zaatari is currently the regional director for the Middle East and North Africa at the Global Fund for Women. She earned her Ph.D. in cultural anthropology with an emphasis in feminist theory from the University of California, Davis. Her publications include the report Advancing Women's Rights in Conflict Zones in the Arab World (in Arabic) and journal articles “The Culture of Motherhood: An Avenue for Women's Civil Participation” and “In the Belly of the Beast: Struggling for Non-Violent Belonging.” She is a member of the Arab Families Working Group (since 2001) and one of the producers of Voices of the Middle East and North Africa, on KPFA 94.1.


    This book is dedicated to Lucinda Peach who, after a valiant fight, succumbed to breast cancer while more than carrying her weight of this project.

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