The Youth Development Handbook: Coming of Age in American Communities


Edited by: Stephen F. Hamilton & Mary Agnes Hamilton

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  • Dedication

    To Urie Bronfenbrenner, colleague, friend, and mentor.


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    This excellent volume contains within its two covers a wealth of practical information for practitioners who work with adolescents as they go through their daunting voyage toward adulthood.

    Surfers spend their lives searching for the perfect wave. So, one might say, do youth development experts. They continually refine their insights—based on research, interaction with the field, and good sense—to produce better guidance and materials to help those on the front line. This book constitutes a good-sized step forward in stating the art. It's not the “perfect” wave, but we're coming along.

    The task is so complicated. There are the challenges of being there for individual young people—by definition different for each person but presenting at the same time universal commonalities and commonalities of group cultures and problem sets. There are challenges of program design, differing by objective, age of the young people served, location, and a host of other variables. There are challenges of empowerment and efficacy, of how to maximize the number of young people who participate successfully in the economy and in the workings of the civil society. There are challenges of community building, seeing programs in terms of what they will contribute to and how they will draw from the context in which they are nested. There are challenges of relationship to and interaction with a host of broader societal institutions, including schools, the labor market, the health care system, law enforcement, and child protection services. There are challenges of being relevant to and responsive to structural issues of discrimination, whether based on race, ethnicity, gender, religion, disability, or sexual orientation.

    This book covers many of these bases, constructively and usefully.

    I am particularly concerned about a dimension of isolation and even denial in youth development practice. One might say that youth development work comes in two flavors: being there for all young people as they move toward adulthood, and being there for those who are at particular risk of falling by the wayside. The deck is so stacked against those in the second group, for a whole host of reasons. And yet I don't see great emphasis in the literature or, more important, in much of the practice, on taking on the racism and the economic stratification and the lousy schools and the recalcitrant employers and the awful juvenile and criminal justice and child welfare systems, and all the rest of it. But maybe the point of youth development work is to be the infantry, the people on the front line who do the one-on-one work that is a vital part of the answer, and maybe the only one that works in an immediate sense. Maybe taking on the big stuff is somebody else's responsibility.

    But I keep thinking that more is possible—that, even with the fact that there are only 24 hours in the day, youth development as a field could encompass more explicitly attention to and connection to fighting against the larger forces that are stacking the deck against too many young people in America. Heaven knows, we need it. The people in Washington are openly and ostentatiously cutting taxes to make the rich richer and to make it impossible for our country to find the money to do something about the long list of real national needs that we have. We need—desperately need—people, especially young people, to take up the in-our-face challenge that has been placed before us. There's nothing secret going on here, no backroom deal, no silent coup. The whole thing is right there—blatant, unmistakable.

    So if this foreword serves any purpose other than to praise this valuable book, my purpose is to challenge all of us to step up our game, and, even more important, to challenge all of the young people with whom we work to play to the hilt their role as citizens and participants in the American community. That, in the end, is the only way we're going to have even a fair shot at making youth development into the force that it ought to be in fulfilling America's promise.

    Peter Edelman, Georgetown University


    Our purpose in editing this volume is to give youth workers and others who wish to promote youth development in communities access to a rapidly growing body of knowledge. We hope the readers will be encouraged to build connections among settings or contexts for youth development to build a system within their communitites so that all youth may thrive. The aim of the book is to stimulate and inspire. It is not a “How-to” guide.

    The term youth development and the ideas and practices associated with it have emerged from the field of youth work, but they have extended beyond practice to influence local, state, and national decision makers in the public and private sectors. Recently, youth development has become a focus for research. This sequence is important. The youth development movement began with professionals and volunteers engaged day-to-day with young people in their communities, in Boys and Girls Clubs, parks and recreation programs, faith groups, families, essentially in settings or contexts other than schools. Recognizing the primacy of practitioners in the field, our intention is to support them by providing a compact and readable set of essays summarizing current theory and research in the field, illustrated by examples of good practice.

    Youth development is not unique in arising from practice. Practice seldom follows theory in lockstep. Rather, the two advance reciprocally as knowledge from each domain influences the other. We emphasize theory and research in this volume, with the goal of illuminating, extending, and challenging practice, not as something temporally prior and superior to practice that practitioners should regard as the received truth. We hope readers will not only use the theory and research and the case illustrations, learn from them, and appeal to them for external validation but also challenge, refine, correct, and enlarge them to continue the evolution of the field.

    The literature on youth development has grown rapidly, especially in the past decade. Enough written material can now be found both in print and on the Web to confuse any reader. One source of confusion is the different ways in which the term is used; another source of confusion is with the number of related terms—especially positive youth development and community youth development. In addition, writers emphasize different aspects of the topic, according to their varying perspectives and purposes: internal and external assets, resilience, prevention, and youth empowerment. But writers also disagree about some of the major tenets of the field, which is inevitable when a field encompasses so much.

    The first chapter addresses the question of what we think youth development is and how it happens. Chapters in Part I describe how different contexts or settings contribute to youth development. They capture much of what we know about those contexts and how each may support youth development. These chapters are organized around people and activities that influence youth development. We emphasize contexts or settings because that reflects the way many people who work with youth identify themselves. The contexts within which development takes place are interrelated. Descriptions of exemplary programs in each chapter illustrate the kinds of issues people face in these environments as they implement the principles of youth development.

    Some chapters refer to physical locations (schools, neighborhoods), others to moveable contexts (family, peer group), and some may overlap (peers congregate in schools and neighborhoods). One, the popular media culture, is a context only in an abstract way. But it is too pervasive and powerful an influence to neglect.

    Although we hope each chapter will contain material that is valuable to all readers, we recognize that someone who is experienced in working with youth, for example, in a faith-based organization, might find little new in the few pages that can be devoted to that topic. Those pages may be more valuable for a reader familiar with community development who can gain a clearer understanding of how faith-based organizations might contribute to a youth initiative.

    Our subtitle intentionally pays homage to Margaret Mead, whose book Coming of Age in Samoa (1928/1970) taught us that many of the youth issues we think of as being biologically programmed result instead from the interaction of biology with society: “Adolescence is not necessarily a time of stress and strain, but that cultural conditions make it so” (p. 170). Adolescence, in other words, is not inherently a tumultuous stage of life that youth and adults simply have to suffer through. This insight offers hope that we can make our communities more caring and supportive places where all youth can come of age as engaged and respected members, fully human though rapidly gaining competence. The ideas, findings, and examples contained in these pages can help us fulfill that hope.

    Mead, M. (1928/1970). Coming of age in Samoa. Ann Arbor, MI: Morrow (Laurel Edition).


    The idea for this book arose from a seminar on youth development led by Stephen Hamilton at Cornell University in the spring of 2001. Regular participants, several of whom are authors of chapters, included Frank Barry, Catherine Bradshaw, Meghan Butryn, Amanda Carreiro, Charlotte Coffman, Aram DeKoven, Jutta Dotterweich, Marcia Eames-Sheavley, Doug Elliott, Steve Goggin, Héléne Grégoire, Mary Agnes Hamilton, Charlie Izzo, Cathann Kress, Jane Powers, Geoffrey Ream, Nancy Schaff, Chrissie Schelhas-Miller, Ray Swisher, Sue Travis, Janis Whitlock, Jerry Ziegler, and David Zielinski.

    As the semester drew to a close, we began to discuss the idea of an edited book to share with practitioners some of what we had learned by reading, discussing, and writing about the literature of the field. Janis Whitlock was heavily involved in the first several iterations of a plan for such a book and in drafting a paper on principles now discussed in Chapter 1; we are grateful for her contributions. Rich Lerner urged us to proceed with the idea and generously referred us to Jim Brace-Thompson at Sage, who embraced the plan and encouraged our continued refinements of it. We appreciate the assistance of Karen Ehrmann, Carla Freeman, and Denise Santoyo in preparing the manuscript for publication.

    Cathann Kress alerted us to a survey of youth workers that led us to limit both the number and the length of the chapters. Many colleagues nominated outstanding youth programs and organizations throughout the country that we contacted for telephone interviews seeking advice about our plans for the volume and how they might use it. We appreciate both the nominations and the advice. Catherine Bradshaw helped with these interviews. Several themes came through clearly. Respondents said they would like to read about principles and research related to best practices (and we learned about some of those practices as they described their own programs). They said they could use a resource for training staff, informing their boards, and as background for planning and proposals. Several made the point that they could learn how youth development works in contexts other than the one in which they worked and how to collaborate more effectively across contexts. We have tried to respond to these recommendations by providing recent research findings along with rich illustrations of youth and adults engaged in activities in various settings. Trying to shape the book in this mold, we asked the chapter authors to write in an engaging style and to work within the framework we set. We appreciate their patience through multiple revisions.

    We have learned from youth who have shared parts of their lives with us over the years: youth apprentices, volunteers, and interns we have interviewed and observed and the caring and committed adults who worked with them; Cornell students who have assisted with a series of research projects; our students at Farquhar Middle School, George Wythe High School, and Phelps Vocational High School; and the denizens of the Belmont Youth Center.

    Colleagues too numerous to mention have challenged and instructed us, both in our professional lives and as community volunteers. Through Cornell Cooperative Extension's 4-H Youth Development program, we have experienced the complexity of creating opportunities for youth. Participation in New York State's Youth Development Team and in the Assets Coming Together for Youth initiative were major motivations for this book. Serving as board members made us aware of the range of people and organizations supporting youth in our community, the resource constraints they face, and their potential power.

    Nicole Yohalem worked closely with us on the first chapter and also in planning for the book and providing resource information. We appreciate her great ideas, positive outlook, and hard work. Our three sons, Pete, Joey, and Ben, deserve thanks as well for teaching us, with untiring patience, wit, and ingenuity, about today's youth, who they are, who they can become and how, and for reminding us of how much more we have to learn. We trust that their youthful vitality will endure as they emerge into adulthood.

  • Name Index

    About the Editors

    Stephen F. Hamilton is Professor of Human Development and Co-Director of the Family Life Development Center at Cornell University. His research and outreach support youth development, especially through 4-H, the youth component of Cooperative Extension. As a Fulbright Senior Research Fellow, he studied Germany's apprenticeship system as an institution supporting the transition to adulthood of youth without college degrees. His book, Apprenticeship for Adulthood, and the youth apprenticeship demonstration project he designed and led with Mary Agnes Hamilton helped to guide the School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994. He has also conducted research and contributed to program development related to service-learning and mentoring. He received his M.A.T. and Ed.D. from the Harvard Graduate School of Education and taught for 3 years in a Washington, D.C., vocational high school.

    Mary Agnes Hamilton is a Senior Research Associate in Human Development at Cornell and Director of the Cornell Youth and Work Program in the Family Life Development Center. Hamilton taught for 4 years in public schools in Richmond, Virginia, and Montgomery County, Maryland. Her primary interests are education and adolescent development. Her research and program development focus on the quality of learning environments in the community, mentoring relationships between nonrelated adults and youth, and the transition to adulthood. She seeks to advance educational opportunities and challenges for all youth to gain character and competence. She is especially interested in those young people who do not graduate from 4-year colleges. She has an M.A.T. from Duke, C.A.S. from Harvard, and Ph.D. from Cornell.

    About the Contributors

    William H. Barton is Professor and Director of the Office of Research Services at the Indiana University School of Social Work, Indiana University-Purdue University in Indianapolis. He received an M.A. from Swarthmore College and his M.S.W. and Ph.D. from the University of Michigan, where he also did postdoctoral research at the Institute for Social Research and the Center for the Study of Youth Policy. Barton teaches courses in juvenile justice policy, program evaluation research methods, and the philosophy of science. His interests include juvenile justice, delinquency prevention and youth development issues, program evaluation, and needs assessment.

    Catherine P. Bradshaw holds a master's degree in Counseling Psychology from the University of Georgia and is a candidate for a doctorate in Developmental Psychology at Cornell University. She is a graduate research assistant in the Family Life Development Center at Cornell and a predoc-toral fellow of the National Consortium on Violence Research. Her research focuses on the development of aggressive and problem behavior in childhood and adolescence and the design and evaluation of youth development programs.

    B. Bradford Brown is Professor of Human Development and former Chair of the Department of Educational Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He received a Ph.D. in human development from the University of Chicago before joining the faculty of the University of Wisconsin in 1979. Brown's research has focused on adolescent peer relations. He is currently the Editor of the Journal of Research on Adolescence, and coeditor of two recent books, The Development of Romantic Relationships in Adolescence (with Wyndol Furman and Candice Feiring), and The World's Youth: Adolescence in 8 Regions of the Globe (with Reed Larson and T.S. Saraswathi).

    Jane D. Brown is the James L. Knight Professor at the School of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1978. She studies how adolescents use and are influenced by the mass media. Her current focus is on the role the media play in shaping adolescents' sexual lives. She is coeditor of Sexual Teens, Sexual Media (2002).

    James P. Connell is the President of the Institute for Research and Reform in Education. Connell received his Ph.D. in developmental psychology from the University of Denver. He has published numerous articles on youth development and community and school influences on urban youth. He is coeditor of New Approaches to Evaluating Community Initiatives: Concepts, Methods and Contexts (1995) and New Approaches to Evaluating Community Initiatives: Theory, Measurement and Analysis (1998). Connell is developing new approaches to planning, implementing, and evaluating complex, multifaceted initiatives involving children and youth.

    Sarah Deschenes is a postdoctoral fellow at the John W. Gardner Center for Youth and Their Communities at Stanford University. Her research has focused on the learning environments of youth development organizations and nonprofit organizations' roles in supporting community change for youth; her dissertation is Lessons from the Middle: Neighborhood Reform for Youth in San Francisco. She holds an M.A. in American history from New York University and a Ph.D. in Administration and Policy Analysis from the Stanford University School of Education.

    Kathleen A. Dorgan is a practitioner of comprehensive community development. As a registered architect and planner (M.S., Pratt), she contributes to incremental strategies for neighborhood renewal and community building. Her projects are featured in Good Neighbors, The Design Advisor, and Design Matters. During her tenure as Executive Director, Capital Hill Improvement renovated 1,563 buildings and developed a rich variety of programs with residents and merchants. A Loeb, HUD, and Brown-Hazen Fellow, she is past president of the Association for Community Design, as well as a frequent speaker, university instructor, and writer on issues of design and community.

    Peter Edelman served in all three branches of government before joining the faculty at Georgetown University's Law Center in 1982. A native of Minnesota, he went to Harvard College and Harvard Law School. He clerked on the Supreme Court for Justice Arthur Goldberg, worked at the Justice Department, and was a Legislative Assistant to Senator Robert Kennedy. In the 1970s he was Vice President of the University of Massachusetts and Director of the New York State Division for Youth. After a stint in private practice, he served as Issues Director for Senator Edward Kennedy's 1980 Presidential campaign.

    At Georgetown, Edelman has taught constitutional law and courses about American poverty. He served as Associate Dean and then took leave to be Counselor to HHS Secretary Donna Shalala and then Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. He is the author of Searching for America's Heart; RFK and the Renewal of Hope, which was recently released in paperback.

    Douglas W. Elliott is a doctoral candidate in his final year of the Cornell University graduate program in Human Development. His research interests are focused on adolescent social support networks, with particular reference to the development and use of extra-familial sources of support. He is currently investigating the differences and similarities between heterosexual and sexual-minority adolescent support networks. His work is concerned with the overall structure of the support networks, as well as the process through which the youths from these two populations utilize the support offered from different members of their network.

    Ronald F. Ferguson is on the faculty at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government, where he has taught since 1983, and he is Senior Research Associate at the Wiener Center for Social Policy Research. His publications cover issues in education policy, youth development programming, community development, economic consequences of skill disparities, and state and local economic development. He was a member of the National Research Council Committee on Community-Level Youth Programming that produced the volume, Community Programs to Promote Youth Development. He earned a Ph.D. from MIT in economics.

    Michelle A. Gambone holds a Ph.D. in sociology from Princeton University. She conducts research and has published numerous reports on youth development, community mobilization, and youth policy and program effectiveness. She has contributed articles to the Aspen Roundtable series on evaluating comprehensive community initiatives and has conducted research on several community-youth development initiatives. She is currently the president of Youth Development Strategies, Inc., a not-for-profit organization that conducts and disseminates research, evaluates programs, and provides evaluation tools to youth development organizations. Gambone also continues the work of Gambone & Associates, assisting organizations in developing planning, management, and evaluation tools.

    James Garbarino is Professor at the Boston College Graduate School of Social Work. Previously, he was Co-Director of the Family Life Development Center and Elizabeth Lee Vincent Professor of Human Development at Cornell, where he earned his Ph.D. His books include And Words Can Hurt Forever: How To Protect Adolescents from Bullying, Harassment and Emotional Violence (2003) (with Ellen deLara); Parents Under Siege: Why You Are the Solution Not The Problem in Your Child's Life (2001) (with Claire Bedard); Lost Boys: Why Our Sons Turn Violent and How We Can Save Them (1999); and Raising Children in a Socially Toxic Environment (1995).

    Charles V. Izzo is a community psychologist, currently working as a senior research analyst with the New York State Office of Children and Family Services, Bureau of Evaluation and Research. His research focuses on understanding the factors that contribute to effective parenting practices and the pathways through which early childhood interventions produce benefits for mothers and children. He also develops and conducts trainings on program evaluation and on incorporating data into policy and program planning. He received his Ph.D. in clinical psychology from the University of Illinois at Chicago.

    Michael J. Karcher is an Assistant Professor of Education and Human Development at the University of Texas-San Antonio. He earned a Ph.D. in Counseling Psychology at the University of Texas at Austin and an Ed.D. in Human Development and Psychology from Harvard University. He has trained school counselors in Wisconsin, Massachusetts, and Texas, and conducts research on developmental interventions, such as pair counseling and developmental mentoring, that promote youths' connectedness.

    Richard E. Kreipe completed graduate, residency, and fellowship training at Temple University School of Medicine, St. Christopher's Hospital for Children, and the University of Rochester, respectively. He is Professor of Pediatrics and Chief of the Division of Adolescent Medicine at the University of Rochester. Dr. Kreipe directs the Rochester Leadership Education in Adolescent Health (LEAH) interdisciplinary training program. He was on the Board of Directors of the Society for Adolescent Medicine and recently completed serving as the Chair of the Adolescent Medicine Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics. His professional focus is on healthy adolescent growth and development.

    Morva McDonald received her master's degree in Curriculum and Teacher Education in June 1998, and her PhD in Administration and Policy Analysis in June 2003 from Stanford University. Her dissertation, The Integration of Social Justice: Reshaping Teacher Education, focused on the integration of social justice and equity in teacher education and the preparation of preservice teachers to work with an increasingly diverse student population. In addition to this research focus, her professional interests include urban education, in particular students' opportunities to learn in and out of school, sociocultural theory, and the sociology of race and culture.

    Milbrey McLaughlin is the David Jacks Professor of Education and Public Policy at Stanford University. Professor McLaughlin is Co-Director of the Center for Research on the Context of Teaching, an interdisciplinary research center engaged in analyses of how teaching and learning are shaped by teachers' organizational, institutional, and social cultural contexts. She is also Executive Director of the John W. Gardner Center for Youth and Their Communities, a partnership between Stanford University and Bay Area communities to build new practices, knowledge, and capacity for youth development and learning both in communities and at Stanford. Her Ph.D. is from Harvard.

    Glenda L. Partee, is Codirector and President of the American Youth Policy Forum, a Washington, D.C., nonprofit, nonpartisan organization that informs policymakers and practitioners about effective interventions for youth. She has extensive policy and program experience in youth development, preparation for careers, public K-12, and higher education. She received a master's degree from the City University of New York and a Ph.D. from The Pennsylvania State University. She serves on the board of a public charter high school, the D.C. Youth Investment Council, and the executive committee of D.C. VOICE, a citizens' collaborative for reform of D.C. public education.

    Karen Pittman is Executive Director of the Forum for Youth Investment and President of Impact Strategies, Inc. As the executive director of the Forum for Youth Investment, which she founded with Merita Irby in 1999, she has dedicated much of her professional career to promoting positive youth development. A sociologist, published author, and nationally recognized leader in the youth development field, Pittman's contributions range from her earliest efforts at the Urban Institute to her 1995 appointment as the director of the unfortunately short-lived President's Crime Prevention Council.

    Geoffrey L. Ream is a Ph.D. Candidate in the Department of Human Development, Cornell University. He is a student Affiliate of the American Psychological Association, divisions 44 (sexual minority issues) and 36 (psychology of religion). His current work is on the role of religion in positive youth development; neighborhood influences on parenting and child outcomes; religion and sexual-minority youth; gay youth suicide; family, religion, and romantic relationships as protective factors for adolescence; and variation in youth resiliency processes based on race, sex, and sexual orientation.

    LaHoma S. Romocki is a Research Associate at North Carolina Central University in Durham, North Carolina, with joint appointments at the JLC Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Institute and the Department of Health Education. She was named a 1999 Park Foundation Fellow at the School of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and is currently completing dissertation research that examines black adolescent girls and their interpretations of sexual health messages on the Internet.

    Sheryl A. Ryan is Associate Professor of Pediatrics at the University of Rochester, Director of Adolescent Services at Rochester General Hospital, and Training Director for the Leadership Education in Adolescent Health (LEAH) interdisciplinary training program. She received her M.D. from Yale University and completed a fellowship in Adolescent Medicine at the University of California at San Francisco and a health services research fellowship at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. Her current activities focus on child health services research, interpersonal violence prevention, and positive youth development, and assisting community agencies to develop programs that use models of youth development.

    Rebecca Schaffer is an independent evaluation consultant with experience in the fields of early childhood education, arts-based youth development, media literacy, and multicultural education. She is currently assisting with an evaluation of the Animating Democracy Initiative, a national arts-based civic dialogue project, and is pursuing a Ph.D. in cultural anthropology at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. As a research assistant at the FPG Child Development Institute, she is conducting research on children's perceptions of and negotiations around human differences. Her dissertation will focus on children's political worlds. She coauthored The YouthARTS Handbook: Arts Programs for Youth at Risk.

    Susan M. Seibold-Simpson received her M.S. from Binghamton University in New York and a master's degree in Public Health from the State University of New York at Albany. She is currently a full-time doctoral student at the University of Rochester School of Nursing. Her area of interest is adolescent sexual risk-taking behaviors and community level interventions. She is a family nurse practitioner who maintains a part-time practice in reproductive health care. Her professional background includes serving as the Deputy Public Health Director of the Broome County Health Department in New York for 3 years.

    Ray Swisher is Assistant Professor of Policy Analysis and Management at Cornell University. He earned a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and a master's degree in City and Regional Planning from Ohio State University. He worked as a Social Policy Analyst with the Metropolitan Human Services Commission in Columbus, Ohio. His current research focuses on neighborhood poverty, with an emphasis on adolescence and the transition to adulthood. He is particularly interested in the effects of exposure to violence on adolescent perceptions of future life chances, their own violence, and other indicators of well-being.

    Lucila Vargas is a Chapman Fellow and an associate professor in the School of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She received her M.A. in Latin American Studies and her Ph.D. in International Communication from the University of Texas at Austin. She edited Women Faculty of Color in the White Classroom and wrote Social Uses and Radio Practices: The Use of Radio by Ethnic Minorities in Mexico. Her current research focuses on critical media literacy and the media use of Latina immigrant young women.

    Janis Whitlock is currently a doctoral candidate in Human Development at Cornell University. There, she studies adolescent development in the context of school and community environments. She is particularly interested in understanding the environmental conditions most likely to encourage healthy development, connectedness, the formation of social capital, and civic engagement. She earned a master's degree in public health from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and has 15 years of experience designing, administering, and evaluating public heath initiatives for youth and their families related to the areas of sexuality, HIV, and dating violence.

    Peter A. Witt is the Bradberry Professor of Recreation and Youth Development in the Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Illinois and master's degree from the University of California at Los Angeles. Witt is the author of a number of articles and books on youth development, including Best Practices in Youth Development in Public Park and Recreation Settings (with John Crompton). His awards and honors include the Research Excellence award from the National Recreation and Park Association. He currently edits the Journal of Park and Recreation Administration.

    Jerome M. Ziegler is Professor and Dean Emeritus, College of Human Ecology, Cornell University. Previous to Cornell, he served as Vice President of the State University of New York, College of Old Westbury; Commissioner of Higher Education in Pennsylvania; and Chair of the Department of Urban Affairs and Policy Analysis at the New School for Social Research. He was Director of an urban Job Corps Center in New Bedford, Massachusetts and has written and consulted widely on problems of urban youth. He holds an M.A. in political science and anthropology from the University of Chicago.

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