The island nation of Madagascar is located in the Indian Ocean 400 kilometers off the eastern coast of southern Africa. Madagascar is crossed by the Tropic of Capricorn and is separated by the Mozambique Channel from the mainland of Africa. The population is 22.9 million, who primarily speak Malagasy and French. The country’s currency is the Malagasy ariary.

History and Geography

Madagascar was a part of the ancient supercontinent of Gondwana at the end of the Proterozoic Eon. When the land broke apart, Madagascar separated from Gondwana. Isolated from Africa for 160 million years, Madagascar is the fourth largest island in the world with over 5,000 kilometers of coastline. Stretching 1,580 kilometers from north to south and 580 kilometers from east to west at its widest part, ...

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