Air traffic control (ATC) is an integral element of air navigation to ensure the smooth and safe operation of airspaces worldwide. The primary duties of ATC are to maintain aircraft at safe distances; guide aircraft during passing through airspace, landing, and taking off; and provide information such as weather conditions. It is often seen as a relay of flights from one ATC center to another, using radio waves.

The use of technology has improved the reliability and speed of ATC services, but ATC is still struggling with the rapid expansion of air traffic worldwide, and many busy airports are operating at close to full capacity. ATC services play an extremely crucial role in expediting flights so that they depart and arrive safely and punctually. The most ...

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