The SAGE Handbook of the History, Philosophy and Sociology of International Relations


Edited by: Andreas Gofas, Inanna Hamati-Ataya & Nicholas Onuf

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: The Inward Gaze: Introductory Reflections

    Part II: Imagining the International, Acknowledging the Global

    Part III: The Search for (An) Identity

    Part IV: International Relations as a Profession

    Part V: Looking Ahead: The Future of Meta-Analysis

  • Copyright

    International Advisory Board

    Duncan Bell (University of Cambridge, UK)

    Ken Booth (Aberystwyth University, UK)

    Chris Brown (London School of Economics, UK)

    Harry Gould (Florida International University, USA)

    Xavier Guillaume (University of Gröningen, The Netherlands)

    Colin Hay (Sciences-Po Paris, France and University of Sheffield, UK)

    Gunther Hellmann (Frankfurt University, Germany)

    Kimberly Hutchings (Queen Mary University of London, UK)

    Beate Jahn (University of Sussex, UK)

    Knud Erik Jørgensen (Aarhus University, Denmark, and Yasar University, Turkey)

    Laleh Khalili (SOAS University of London, UK)

    Friedrich Kratochwil (European University Institute, Italy)

    Yosef Lapid (New Mexico State University, USA)

    Renée Marlin-Bennett (Johns Hopkins University, USA)

    David McCourt (University of California, Davis, USA)

    João Pontes Nogueira (Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

    Erik Ringmar (Lund University, Sweden)

    Justin Rosenberg (University of Sussex, UK)

    Brian C. Schmidt (Carleton University, Canada)

    Robbie Shilliam (Queen Mary University of London, UK)

    Jennifer Sterling-Folker (University of Connecticut, USA)

    Michael C. Williams (University of Ottawa, Canada)

    List of Figures

    Notes on the Editors and Contributors

    The Editors

    Andreas Gofas is Associate Professor of International Relations at Panteion University of Athens, founding director of the Center for the Analysis of Terrorism and European Security (CATES) at the European Law and Governance School, and co-director of the Olympia Summer Academy. In the past, he has held research positions at the NYU Law School (Senior Emile Noël and Fulbright Fellow), the European University Institute (Jean Monnet Fellow), the University of Sheffield (Marie Curie Fellow), Yale University (Visiting Scholar), the Institut Barcelona d'Estudis Internacionals (Postdoctoral Fellow), and the LSE (Visiting Fellow). His books include: Theoretical Projections in International Politics, The Role of Ideas in Political Analysis (co-ed), the Oxford Handbook of Terrorism (co-ed), Terrorism and European Security Governance (ed).

    Inanna Hamati-Ataya is Principal Research Associate at the Centre for Research in the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities (CRASSH), University of Cambridge, and Founding Director of the Centre for Global Knowledge Studies (GloKnoS). She holds a PhD in Political Science from the University of Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne and is a former Marie Curie Fellow under the European Union's 7th Framework Programme for Research and Innovation. With Arlene Tickner and David Blaney, she co-edits the Routledge book series ‘Worlding beyond the West', and is Advisory Editor for the journal Interdisciplinary Science Reviews. In the past decade her research and publications have focused on epistemology, the sociology of knowledge and science, and International Relations theory, culminating in a monograph entitled Recovering Knowledge, currently in preparation. Her current project ‘The Global as Artefact', funded by the European Research Council, explores the impact of humankind's epistemic evolution on global political structures and transformations.

    Nicholas Onuf has been Professor Emeritus at Florida International University since 2005. Over a fifty-year career, he has held teaching and research appointments at eighteen universities on four continents. His work is broadly concerned with theory: international, legal, political, and social. He is the author or co-author of six books. Making Sense, Making Worlds: Constructivism in Social Theory and International Relations (2013) was published in conjunction with the republication of World of Our Making: Rules and Rule in Social Theory and International Relations (1989). His latest (read: last) book, The Mightie Frame': Epochal and Change in the Modern World, is forthcoming.

    The Contributors

    Tanja Aalberts is Professor in the Department of Transnational Legal Studies, VU University, Amsterdam, and Director of Research at the Centre for the Politics of Transnational Law ( Her research focuses on the interplay between international law and international politics in practices of governance. Her most recent books are Power of Legality: Practices of International Law and Their Politics (with Nikolas Rajkovic and Thomas Gammeltoft-Hansen) (2016) and Changing Practices of International Law (with Thomas Gammeltoft-Hansen) (2018). She has published inter alia in the European Journal of International Relations, Review of International Studies, Millennium and Journal of Common Market Studies. She is Founder and Series Editor of the Routledge book series ‘Politics of Transnational Law’ and Editor for the Leiden Journal of International Law.

    Lucian M. Ashworth is Professor of Political Science in the Department of Political Science at the Memorial University of Newfoundland. His main areas of research interest are the history of international thought and the disciplinary history of International Relations. He has published in many journals includingInternational Studies Quarterly, European Journal of International Relations, Review of International Studies, International Relations, and The Journal of International Political Theory; and is the author of A History of International Thought, published by Routledge in 2014. His current book-length project explores the different origin stories in IR, and is due to be published by Routledge in 2019–20.

    Alexander D. Barder is Assistant Professor of International Relations at Florida International University. He was previously Assistant Professor of International Politics at the American University of Beirut. His current research explores the relationships between 19th century and early 20th century geopolitics, race, and genocide. His current book project is an intellectual history of the concept of race war as an alternative vision of global politics of the 19th century. He is author of Empire Within: International Hierarchy and its Imperial Laboratories of Governance (2015) and co-author (with François Debrix) of Beyond Biopolitics: Theory, Violence and Horror in World Politics (2012). His work has appeared in International Studies Review, European Journal of International Relations, Globalizations, and the Millennium Journal of International Studies.

    Jens Bartelson is Professor of Political Science, Lund University. His fields of interest include international political theory, the history of political thought, political philosophy, and social theory. Jens Bartelson has written mainly about the concept of the sovereign state, the philosophy of world community, and the concept of war in international thought. He is the author of War in International Thought (Cambridge University Press, 2017), Visions of World Community (Cambridge University Press, 2009), The Critique of the State (Cambridge University Press, 2001), A Genealogy of Sovereignty (Cambridge University Press, 1995), as well as of articles in leading journals in international relations, international law, political theory, and sociology.

    Felix Berenskoetter is Senior Lecturer in International Relations at SOAS, University of London. He holds a PhD from the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) and he specializes in international theory; concepts of friendship, identity, power, security, peace, space, and time; European security and transatlantic relations. He has published on these topics in various outlets and most recently edited Concepts in World Politics (2016). He is the Founder and former Chair of the ISA Theory Section and currently is Associate Editor of the Journal of Global Security Studies; he also co-convenes the ‘Interpretivism in International Relations’ BISA Working Group. In 2017–18 Felix holds a Leverhulme Research Fellowship to write a book exploring processes of international friendship and estrangement.

    Thomas Biersteker is the Gasteyger Professor of International Security and Director for Policy Research at the Graduate Institute, Geneva. He previously directed the Watson Institute for International Studies at Brown University and has also taught at Yale University and the University of Southern California. He is the author/editor of ten books, including, most recently, Targeted Sanctions: The Impacts and Effectiveness of UN Action (2016) and was the principal developer of SanctionsApp, a mobile device with detailed information about UN targeted sanctions. His current research interests include the pedagogy of International Relations, the dialectics of world orders, reform of international organisations, informal global governance, and the relationship between sanctions and mediation at the UN. He received his PhD and MS from MIT and his BA from the University of Chicago.

    David L. Blaney is G. Theodore Mitau Professor of Political Science, Macalester College, USA. He works in the domains of international political and social theory, political economic thought, and global inequality, including in knowledge production. He has written International Relations and the Problem of Difference (2004) and Savage Economics: Wealth, Poverty, and the Temporal Walls of Capitalism (2010), both with Naeem Inayatullah. With Arlene Tickner, he is Co-editor of Thinking International Relations Differently (2012) and Claiming the International (2013). Currently, he is working on economic theology and international political economy, theories of exploitation, and decolonial thought and the pluriverse.

    Christian Bueger is Professor of International Relations in the Department of Politics and International Relations at Cardiff University, Honorary Professor of the University of Seychelles, and a research fellow at the University of Stellenbosch. He obtained his PhD in Political and Social Sciences from the European University Institute, Florence. His current work is on the epistemic practices of maritime security governance and the political dynamics in the Western Indian Ocean region. He is one of the lead editors of the European Journal of International Security. He is the author of International Practice Theory (with Frank Gadinger, 2018).

    Zeynep Gülşah Çapan is Lecturer in International Relations at the University of Erfurt. She is the author of Re-Writing International Relations: History and Theory Beyond Eurocentrism in Turkey (2016) published by Rowman & Littlefield. She has published in journals such as Third World Quarterly, Contexto Internationales and Review of International Studies. Her research agenda focuses on Eurocentrism, sociology of the International Relations discipline, intellectual histories of postcolonial and decolonial thought and Historical International Relations.

    Boyu Chen is Lecturer in the Department of International Studies and Regional Development at the University of Niigata Prefecture, Japan. His research focuses on International Relations as well as political institutions of East Asian countries, with a special focus on identity politics and digital politics. His articles have appeared in, among others, East Asia, Pacific Focus, International Relations of the Asia-Pacific, Millennium: Journal of International Studies.

    Anne-Marie D'Aoust is an Associate Professor in the Department of Political Science at the Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM). She is also Co-director of UQAM's Centre de recherche en immigration, ethnicité et citoyenneté. Her recent publications include the edited volume Affective Economies, Neoliberalism, and Governmentality (2014). Her main research project centres on the connections between love, governmentality, and security when it comes to marriage migration management practices in Europe and North America.

    Benjamin de Carvalho is Senior Research Fellow at the Norwegian Institute for International Affairs (NUPI) in Oslo. He holds a PhD from the University of Cambridge and has studied at the New School for Social Research and the University of Oslo. He has published extensively in the field of Historical International Relations, specializing in issues of state formation, religion and sovereignty.

    Steve Fuller is Auguste Comte Professor of Social Epistemology in the Department of Sociology at the University of Warwick, UK. Originally trained in history and philosophy of science, Fuller is best known for his foundational work in the field of ‘social epistemology', which is the name of a quarterly journal that he founded in 1987 as well as the first of his more than twenty books. From 2011 to 2014 he published a trilogy relating to the idea of a ‘post-’ or ‘trans-'human future, all published with Palgrave Macmillan under the rubric of ‘Humanity 2.0'. His most recent books are Knowledge: The Philosophical Quest in History (2015) and The Academic Caesar (2016). His works have been translated into over twenty languages. He was awarded a DLitt by the University of Warwick in 2007 for sustained lifelong contributions to scholarship. He is also a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, the UK Academy of Social Sciences, and the European Academy of Sciences and Arts. His most recent book, Post-Truth: Knowledge as a Power Game, has just been published.

    Frank Gadinger is Senior Researcher at the Centre for Global Cooperation Research, University of Duisburg-Essen. Previously he was a Research Associate at the NRW School of Governance, University of Duisburg-Essen, leading a project on political narratives. He holds a PhD from the Goethe University Frankfurt/Main. The focus of his PhD was on the practices of justification and critique in the US War on Terror. During his PhD he was a Visiting Fellow at Johns Hopkins University, and a Research Associate and Adjunct Lecturer at the University of Mainz. His publications have appeared in journals such as International Political Sociology, International Studies Quarterly, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, Leviathan, and International Studies Perspectives.

    David Grondin is Associate Professor in the Department of Communication at the Université de Montréal, where he teaches international communication, media studies, political communication, surveillance, digital technologies, and popular culture. He is a Regular Researcher at the International Centre for Comparative Criminology and a Research Fellow at the Montreal Centre for International Studies. His current research brings to the fore new forms of surveillance enacted by the security/mobility nexus, media infrastructures and big data in the digital era. His research coalesces around three main areas of enquiry: (1) the surveillance of mobility, algorithmic security, and technopolitical infrastructures in policing North American borderlands; (2) the militarisation of everyday life, the surveillance society and the culture of the US national security state; and (3) US popular culture and media cultures, with a special focus on humour and infotainment media as media practice.

    John G. Gunnell is Distinguished Professor Emeritus at the State University of New York at Albany. His work involves various aspects of political theory and the history and philosophy of social science. Recent work includes John G. Gunnell: History, Discourses, and Disciplines, edited by Christopher C. Robinson (2016); Social Inquiry after Wittgenstein and Kuhn: Leaving Everything as It Is (2014); Social Science and Political Theory: Cutting Against the Grain (2011); ‘The Reconstitution of Political Theory: David Easton and the Long Road to System', Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 2013; ‘Rise and Fall of the Democratic Dogma and the Emergence of Empirical Democratic Theory', in Mark Bevir (ed.), Modern Pluralism: Anglo-American Debates Since 1880 (2012); and ‘Unpacking Emotional Baggage in Political Theory', in Frank Vander Valk (ed.), Essays in Neuroscience and Political Theory (2012).

    Jonas Hagmann is Senior Researcher and Lecturer at the Institute of Science, Technology and Policy (ISTP), ETH Zürich. His research focuses on the political sociology of international risk and security politics, in particular the relations between ‘security knowledge’ and foreign policy making, the professionalisation of national security fields, and the emergence of integrated urban control dispositives. His work also looks at the sociology of International Relations, the institutional embedding of disciplinary knowledge and reproduction of international ‘savoir faire’ through teaching especially. Jonas is the author of (In-)Security and the Production of International Relations: The Politics of Securitization in Europe (2015). His contributions have appeared in European Journal of International Relations, Security Dialogue, International Studies Review and Journal of International Relations and Development, among others.

    Sarah Hewitt is a PhD Candidate at Monash Gender, Peace and Security Centre in the School of Social Sciences at Monash University, Australia. Her doctoral research focuses on women's participation during peace processes, the inclusion of gender provisions in peace agreements, and how this affects women's participation in post-conflict societies, concentrating on Nepal and Kenya. She has published articles on the women, peace and security agenda in International Feminist Journal of Politics and the Global Responsibility to Protect.

    Victoria Tin-bor Hui is Associate Professor in Political Science at the University of Notre Dame. Her research examines the centrality of war in the formation and transformation of ‘China’ in history. She is the author of War and State Formation in Ancient China and Early Modern Europe (2005) and has published the articles ‘Toward a Dynamic Theory of International Politics', ‘The Emergence and Demise of Nascent Constitutional Rights', ‘History and Thought in China's Traditions', and the book chapters ‘How Tilly's Warfare Paradigm Is Revolutionizing the Study of Chinese State-Making', ‘The China Dream: Revival of What Historical Greatness?', ‘Confucian Pacifism or Confucian Confusion?'. As a native from Hong Kong, Hui has also written ‘Hong Kong's Umbrella Movement: The Protest and Beyond.'

    Naeem Inayatullah is Professor of Politics at Ithaca College, USA. His work locates the Third World in International Relations and global political economy. With David Blaney, he is the co-author of Savage Economics (2010) and International Relations and the Problem of Difference (2004). He is the Editor of Autobiographical International Relations (2011) and Co-editor with Elizabeth Dauphinee of Narrative Global Politics (2016). Recent work includes ‘Gigging on the World Stage: Bossa Nova and Afrobeat after De-Reification’ in Contexto Internacional (2016). He is Associate Editor of the Journal of Narrative Politics.

    Patrick Thaddeus Jackson is Professor of International Studies and Associate Dean for Curriculum and Learning in the School of International Service at American University in Washington, DC. He was named US Professor of the Year for the District of Columbia in 2012. His award-winning book The Conduct of Inquiry in International Relations was published in a second edition in 2016. At the moment he is working on explanation in international studies, the relationship between scholarship and politics, and popular culture and theology as alternative vocabularies and idioms for theorising difference, boundaries, and encounter.

    Patrick James is Dornsife Dean's Professor, School of International Relations, at the University of Southern California (PhD, University of Maryland, College Park). He is the author or editor of 25 books and over 130 articles and book chapters. He was Distinguished Scholar in Foreign Policy Analysis for the International Studies Association (ISA), 2006–7, and Distinguished Scholar in Ethnicity, Nationalism and Migration for ISA, 2009–10. He is a past Chair for the Political Forecasting Group of the American Political Science Association. He also served as President, 2007–9, of the Association for Canadian Studies in the United States, and President of the International Council for Canadian Studies, 2011–13, as well as serving a five-year term as Editor of International Studies Quarterly. He was recently President of the Peace Science Society, 2016–17, and will serve as President of the ISA, 2018–19.

    Randall J. Jones Jr is Professor of Political Science, Emeritus, at the University of Central Oklahoma, where he developed the Graduate Program in International Relations and was its first Director. His primary scholarly interest is political forecasting, which has led to two avenues of research. The first was international political risk analysis, forecasting host-government policies and political instability adverse to oil companies’ operations abroad. The second is election forecasting, which in recent years has centred on PollyVote, a project to increase forecast accuracy by combining predictions from diverse methods. His work, in part the result of collaborations, has appeared in the International Journal of Forecasting, Journal of International Business Studies, Foresight: The International Journal of Applied Forecasting and in other publications. He was Co-editor of 21 Debated: Current Issues in World Politics (2000, 2004) and author of Who Will Be in the White House? Predicting Presidential Elections (2002). He is a Founder of the Political Forecasting Group, a Related Group of the American Political Science Association.

    Torbjørn L. Knutsen, PhD in International Studies (University of Denver, 1985), is Professor of International Relations in the Department of Sociology and Political Science at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), in Trondheim. His English-language publications include A History of International Relations Theory (3rd edition, 2016), The Rise and Fall of World Orders (1999) and Ways of Knowing (co-written with Jonathon Moses, 2nd edition, 2012). His interests include Great Power politics, diplomatic history, issues of war, and peace.

    Peter Marcus Kristensen is Associate Professor in the Department of Political Science at the University of Copenhagen. His research interests include the sociology of the International Relations discipline, ‘non-Western’ perspectives and theories on International Relations, and theories on rising powers and peaceful change. He is currently working on the research project ‘States of Emergence’ on emerging powers and IR theory funded by the Independent Research Fund Denmark. His research on the sociology of knowledge has previously been published or is forthcoming in journals like the European Journal of International Relations, International Studies Quarterly, International Studies Review, International Studies Perspectives, and International Political Sociology.

    George Lawson is Associate Professor in International Relations at LSE. His books include: Global Historical Sociology, edited with Julian Go (2017), The Global Transformation, with Barry Buzan (2015), The Global 1989: Continuity and Change in World Politics, edited with Chris Armbruster and Michael Cox (2010), and Negotiated Revolutions: The Czech Republic, South Africa and Chile (2005). He is currently working on a book entitled Anatomies of Revolution.

    Anna Leander is Professor of International Relations at the Graduate Institute (Geneva) and at the Institute of International Relations, PUC, Rio de Janeiro. She is known primarily for her contributions to the development of practice theoretical approaches to International Relations and for her work on the politics of commercialising military/security matters. Her recent research focuses on practice theoretical approaches and most recently on theorising digital, visual and legal practices. She recently published Assembling Exclusive Expertise: Conflict Resolution Knowledge in Practice (edited with Ole Wæver), Handbook of Private Security Studies (edited with Rita Abrahamsen), and Commercializing Security in Europe (ed.), as well articles in European Journal of Social Theory, EPD: Space and Society, Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, Leiden Journal of International Law, and Review of International Studies. She is Associate Editor of Contexto Internacional and ‘The Cambridge Elements in International Relations', and Editor of the Routledge ‘Private Security Studies'. She has also been a member of a number of research councils, policy advisory bodies and boards of professional associations.

    Richard Ned Lebow is Professor of International Political Theory in the War Studies Department of King's College London, Bye-Fellow of Pembroke College, University of Cambridge, and the James O. Freedman Presidential Professor Emeritus of Government at Dartmouth College. His most recent books are Avoiding War, Making Peace (2017), Max Weber and International Relations (2017), and The Rise and Fall of Political Orders (2018). He is a Fellow of the British Academy.

    Halvard Leira is Senior Research Fellow at the Norwegian Institute for International Affairs (NUPI). His research centres on diplomacy, foreign policy, international thought and historical International Relations. His work has appeared in Review of International Studies, Millennium, Leiden Journal of International Law, International Studies Perspectives, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, Global Society and Cooperation and Conflict. He has been Co-editor of the Sage Library of International Relations sets International Diplomacy (2013) and Historical International Relations (2015). He is a Founder Member and former Section Chair of the Historical International Relations Section of the International Studies Association, and Programme Chair of the 2018 Pan European Conference on International Relations.

    Daniel J. Levine is Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of Alabama. He is the author of Recovering International Relations: The Promise of Sustainable Critique (2012), and has authored or co-authored pieces in Millennium, International Relations, The European Journal of International Relations, Critical Studies in Security,International Studies Review, Perspectives on Politics and Political Power and Social Theory. He was President of International Studies Association's Northeast Region in 2016–17, and (with Annette Freyberg-Inan) co-chaired the ISA's Theory Section that year as well. His current project is tentatively entitled Israel, Palestine, and the Politics of Jewish Fear.

    L.H.M. Ling is Professor of International Affairs at The New School in New York. Her research focuses on a post-Western, post-Westphalian approach to world politics called worldism: that is, we live in a world of multiple worlds. She is the author of four books: Postcolonial International Relations: Conquest and Desire Between Asia and the West (2002), Transforming World Politics: From Empire to Multiple Worlds (co-authored with A.M. Agathangelou, York University, 2009); The Dao of World Politics: Towards a Post-Westphalian, Worldist International Relations (2014); and Imagining World Politics: Sihar & Shenya, A Fable for Our Times (2014). Two books are forthcoming: A Worldly World Order: Epistemic Compassion for International Relations (Oxford University Press) and Between India and China: An Ancient Dialectic for Contemporary World Politics (co-authored with Payal Banerjee, Smith College, Rowman & Littlefield).

    Cecelia Lynch is Professor of Political Science and International Studies at the University of California, Irvine. She is the author or co-author of three books and two edited volumes, including Interpreting International Politics (2014), Strategies for Research in Constructivist International Relations (2007, with Audie Klotz) and Beyond Appeasement: Interpreting Interwar Peace Movements in World Politics (1999), which won two prizes. She has been awarded fellowships from the Social Science Research Council/MacArthur Foundation, American Association of University Women, Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and the Henry Luce Foundation, and her articles on interpretivism, IR theory, religion, ethics and humanitarianism have appeared in International Studies Quarterly, Globalizations, International Theory, Millennium, Ethics & International Relations, Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, among other journals and in many edited volumes. She co-founded and co-edits the blog ‘Critical Investigations into Humanitarianism in Africa', or the CIHA Blog, at

    Nicholas Michelsen is Senior Lecturer in the Department of War Studies, King's College London. His research and teaching focuses on International Relations theory, political violence, and strategic communications. He is Director of Research in the King's Centre for Strategic Communications (KCSC), which forms a hub in a global network of researchers and practitioners in the field. His most recent book was entitled Politics and Suicide: The Philosophy of Political Self Destruction, published in 2015.

    Himadeep Muppidi is Betty G.C. Cartwright Professor of Political Science and International Studies and Chair of the Department of Political Science at Vassar College, New York. He is the author of Politics in Emotion: The Song of Telangana (2015), The Colonial Signs of International Relations (2012), and The Politics of the Global (2004).

    Ido Oren is Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of Florida. His research interests range from IR theory, international security affairs and US foreign policy, through the history and sociology of American political science and IR, to interpretive methods of political research. His book, Our Enemies and US: America's Rivalries and the Making of Political Science, was published by Cornell University Press and translated into Chinese and Japanese. His articles have appeared in journals such as International Security, European Journal of International Relations, Review of International Studies, International Studies Review, and Perspectives on Politics. Oren is a former Vice President of the International Studies Association. In spring 2010 he was a Fulbright Lecturer at China Foreign Affairs University in Beijing. He has given invited presentations in Germany, Denmark, Turkey, Israel, Japan, Canada, and China.

    Mustapha Kamal Pasha has been Chair in International Politics at Aberystwyth University since 2013, having been Sixth Century Chair and Head of International Relations at the University of Aberdeen. He has also previously taught at the School of International Service, American University in Washington, DC. His recent publications include: International Relations and Islam: Fractured Worlds (2017), ‘Religion and the Fabrication of Race', in Millennium: Journal of International Studies (2017) and ‘Decolonizing The Anarchical Society', in The Anarchical Society at 40: Contemporary Challenges & Prospects (ed. Hidemi Suganami et al., 2017).

    Evgeny Roshchin is Dean of the Department of Comparative Political Studies, North-West Institute of Management, Branch of RANEPA, St Petersburg. He received his PhD from the University of Jyväskylä (Finland) and was an Academy of Finland Postdoctoral Researcher, 2012–15. He has published articles in European Journal of International Relations, Review of International Studies, Redescriptions, and International Politics. He respectively edited and co-edited Contemporary Republican Theory of Freedom (2015; in Russian) and In Debate with Kari Palonen: Concepts, Politics, Histories (2015). His book Friendship among Nations: History of a Concept was published by Manchester University Press in 2017. He co-convenes the ‘Interpretivism in International Relations’ BISA Working Group. His interests are within the field of international thought, conceptual history and republicanism.

    Marcos Scauso acquired his BA in Sociology at the National University of Argentina, his MA in International Relations at San Francisco State University, and is now a PhD candidate in the Department of Political Science at the University of California, Irvine. His research interests are International Relations, identity politics, environmentalisms, interpretive methods, and Latin America. Previous work includes ‘Indianismo and Decoloniality: Voices of Resistance', in Religious Activism in the Global Economy: Promoting, Reforming, or Resisting Neoliberal Globalization? (2016). He also directed two research documentaries about indigenous activisms in Argentina and Bolivia. Currently, he is working on his dissertation, which focuses on the relationship between indigenous movements and liberal ideas of coexistence.

    Tanya B. Schwarz is Visiting Assistant Professor of Political Science in the Department of Global Politics and Societies at Hollins University, USA. Her research focuses on how religion is interpreted and enacted in international politics. Her work has appeared in International Studies Quarterly, International Studies Review, and The Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics, as well as in online forums including ‘The Immanent Frame and Contending Modernities'. Her book, Faith-Based Organizations in Transnational Peacebuilding, was published in spring 2018.

    Brent J. Steele is the Francis D. Wormuth Presidential Chair and Professor of Political Science at the University of Utah. He previously worked at the University of Kansas from 2005 to 2013. He earned his PhD in 2005 at the University of Iowa. His research focuses primarily on international security, IR theory and international ethics. His most recent work has continued to develop ontological security theory in IR. Even more recent work investigates the intersections of IR and micropolitics, the next generation of constructivist research, centenary politics, aesthetics, and intervention.

    Erzsébet Strausz is Assistant Professor in the Department of Politics and International Studies at the University of Warwick. She holds a PhD from Aberystwyth University and her research focuses on post-structuralist theory, critical security studies, critical pedagogy, as well as creative, experimental and narrative methods in the study of world politics. She was awarded the British International Studies Association's Excellence in Teaching International Studies Prize in 2017 and her research monograph Writing the Self and Transforming Knowledge in International Relations: Towards a Politics of Liminality is forthcoming in the Routledge ‘Interventions’ book series.

    Arlene B. Tickner is Professor and Director of Research in the School of Political Science, Government and International Relations at the Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá. Her main areas of research include sociology of knowledge and geocultural difference in the field of IR, Latin American security, and Colombian foreign policy. She also writes a weekly column in the Colombian daily El Espectador. She is Co-editor (with David Blaney and Inanna Hamati-Ataya) of the Routledge book series ‘Worlding beyond the West'. Three of her most recent publications include South–South Cooperation beyond the Myths: Rising Donors, New Aid Practices? (2017), ‘Worlding, Ontological Politics and the Possibility of a Decolonial IR', Millennium (2017) and Nuevos enfoques para el estudio de las Relaciones Internacionales de Colombia (2017).

    Jacqui True is Professor and Director of Monash University's Centre for Gender, Peace and Security (Monash GPS) in the School of Social Sciences at Monash University, Australia. She is an Australian Research Council (ARC) Future Fellow and a Global Fellow, Peace Research Institute (PRIO), Oslo. Her current research is focused on understanding the political economy of post-conflict violence against women and the patterns of systemic sexual and gender-based violence in Asia-Pacific conflict-affected countries. Recent publications include The Political Economy of Violence Against Women (2012) and Scandalous Economics: The Politics of Gender and Financial Crises (2016) edited with Aida Hozić. She is Co-editor with Sara Davies of The Oxford Handbook on Women, Peace and Security (2018).

    Thomas J. Volgy is Professor of Political Science at the University of Arizona. He also served for twenty years as Executive Director of the International Studies Association, and under his leadership the association created six new journals. His scholarship is reflected in journals that include: International Studies Quarterly, American Journal of Political Science, World Politics, International Organization, International Studies Review, Journal of Peace Research, International Interactions, European Review of International Studies, British Journal of Political Science, Public Opinion Quarterly, Social Sciences Quarterly, Foreign Policy Analysis, Journal of International Relations and Development, Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy, Journalism Quarterly, The Nation, The New Republic, American Prospect, Harvard Business Review, and The Oxford Encyclopedia of Empirical International Relations Theories. His most recent book, co-authored, was Major Powers and the Quest for Status in International Politics (2011).

    Ole Wæver is Professor of International Relations in the Department of Political Science, University of Copenhagen, Founder of CAST (Centre for Advanced Security Theory) and Director of CRIC (Centre for Resolution of International Conflicts). He has published in International Organization, Journal of Peace Research, International Affairs, Cooperation and Conflict, Journal of International Affairs, Journal of Common Market Studies, Review of International Studies, Millennium, International Relations and Security Dialogue. Among his main books are Introduktion til Studiet af International Politik (1992), Security: A New Framework for Analysis (with Barry Buzan and Jaap de Wilde, 1998); Regions and Powers: The Structure of International Security (with Barry Buzan, 2003) and International Relations Scholarship Around the World (co-edited with Arlene B. Tickner, 2009). He was elected to the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters in 2007.

    Colin Wight is Professor and Chair of Government and International Relations in the School of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Sydney. His book Agents, Structures and International Relations examines the manner in which differing theories conceptualise the key units of analysis that are claimed to contribute to the processes of International Relations, and attempts to show how these understandings play a role in substantive empirical research and the practice of international politics. He is also interested in all aspects of political violence and has recently published Rethinking Terrorism: Terrorism, Violence and the State (2015). He moved to Sydney in January 2001, having previously worked at Exeter, Sheffield and Aberystwyth. He also served as the Editor in Chief of the European Journal of International Relations.

    Jeremy Youde is Associate Professor in the Department of International Relations in the College of Asia and the Pacific at the Australian National University. He previously held appointments at San Diego State University, Grinnell College and the University of Minnesota Duluth. His research focuses primarily on global health governance and the intersection of global health and International Relations, and he has written numerous academic and general interest publications on these topics. He serves as the Chair of the International Studies Association's Global Health Section and is a member of the ISA Governing Council. He received his PhD from the University of Iowa in 2005.

    Ayşe Zarakol is Reader at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow at Emmanuel College. She works on East–West relations in the international system; problems of modernity and sovereignty; rising and declining powers; and non-Western politics in a comparative perspective. In addition to her book After Defeat: How the East Learned to Live with the West (2011), she has published in journals such as International Organization, Cooperation & Conflict, International Studies Quarterly, International Theory, Review of International Studies, European Journal of International Relations and International Relations, as well as in more policy-oriented outlets (such as the Journal of Democracy) and edited books. In recent years, she had fellowships with the Council on Foreign Relations, the Centre for Research in the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities at the University of Cambridge and the Nobel Institute in Oslo. Her most recent book is Hierarchies in World Politics (2017).

    Yongjin Zhang is Professor of International Politics at the University of Bristol. His most recent publications include Contesting International Society in East Asia (2014, co-edited with Barry Buzan), International Orders in the Early Modern World: Before the Rise of the West (2014, co-edited with Shogo Suzuki and Joel Quirk) and Constructing a Chinese School of International Relations: Ongoing Debates and Sociological Realities (2016, co-edited with Teng-chi Chang). He is currently working on a book project International Relations in Ancient China: Ideas, Institutions and Law, which was supported by a Leverhulme Major Research Fellowship, 2015–17.


    Handbooks are traditionally conceived as volumes that document the state of the art in a field of enquiry. As such they are informed by the present with a focused gaze on the lessons of the past. When we first approached SAGE we presented our proposed handbook as unconventional in two ways. First, its very title/theme was unique in the landscape of International Relations (IR) referential volumes as well as in the IR curriculum, for the simple reason that its interdisciplinary framing of IR as an intellectual field and profession had not yet been conceived in any systematic way. Second, we aspired not simply to review an age-old research tradition, but to provide a forward-looking handbook that reconstructs the old practice in a way that would potentially change our conventional expectations of what handbooks (could) do, and stimulate our collective imaginary by projecting our collective thinking into the future. Our first thanks therefore go to SAGE for immediately welcoming the project, including its unconventionalities, and reinforcing our conviction that this intervention was a necessary one. We are grateful to Amy Jarrold, Matthew Oldfield and Natalie Aguilera for their help at different stages of this enterprise, and especially to Colette Wilson, who has been an unfailing source of support and guidance in its most crucial moments. Upon completion of the project Rudrani Mukherjee's and Neville Hankins's rigour and dedication made for a smooth and efficient transition to the final production and publication stage.

    We are also thankful to the seven (yes, seven!) external and anonymous reviewers enlisted by SAGE to evaluate our proposal. Their encouraging responses gave us a sense of security, while their targeted comments led us to a substantive and bold reconstruction of the initial structure of this Handbook. Some of them have since enthusiastically made themselves known to us and even joined the project as either contributors or Advisory Board members. This enthusiasm gave us an early sense of the Handbook's distinctive value to our larger community.

    Any editorial venture of the size of this Handbook is a daunting task. In this light, we decided to introduce a three-layer system of governance. Each chapter would receive external feedback from a member of an International Advisory Board, then internal feedback from another chapter contributor, and then from us. The input of the volume's Board members was invaluable and their commitment to the project a testimony to exemplary academic citizenship. The list of these distinguished colleagues appears on p. ii of this volume and we would like to thank each and every one of them for their dedicated contribution and support.

    As the above hints, we have more than one reason to thank our contributors – actually we have at least three. First, for their contributions that helped us map the meta-theoretical landscape and gave the volume a direction we had not always anticipated when we first approached them. Second, for acting as superb anonymous reviewers to other Handbook chapters. Third, for their enthusiasm and the sense of co-ownership they immediately developed. They helped us sustain our efforts along this long journey and made it a stimulating one.

    Andreas Gofas would like to thank Dimitris Keridis and Stathis Kalyvas, with whom he co-directs the Olympia Summer Academy, for giving him the space to experiment with the introduction of a seminar on the history and philosophy of IR – arguably the place at which the idea of this Handbook was born. He would, thus, like to thank all participants to this seminar and the colleagues with whom he co-convened it during the last five years, namely: Stefano Guzzini, Inanna Hamati-Ataya, John M. Hobson, Jonathan Joseph, Friedrich Kratochwil, Peter Marcus Kristensen, Nuno Monteiro, Daniel H. Nexon and Nicholas Onuf. He would also like to thank the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies at the European University Institute in Florence for providing a most hospitable and intellectually stimulating environment during his 2016–17 sabbatical.

    Inanna Hamati-Ataya would like to thank the Marie Curie Fellowship scheme of the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme for Research and Innovation (grant no. 322146) for providing invaluable material support without which her work on this project would have been significantly impeded. She is also grateful to her students for the stimulating discussions on the many dimensions of IR scholarship, especially the undergraduate cohort who took her experimental introductory course on the sociology of IR. The insights they offered and the challenges they faced in handling different orders of discourse and counter-narratives about ‘the discipline’ while pursuing degrees in its mythical/mythological ‘birth place’ at Aberystwyth University have been illuminating on many levels. Her ultimate gratitude goes to Hamelkart Ataya for his patience, love, intellectual inspiration and culinary skills.

    Nicholas Onuf would like to thank the Fulbright Scholar Program, sponsored by the Bureau of Educational Cultural Affairs of the US Department of State, for affording him four glorious months in Athens, and Artemis Zenetou, Nicholas Tourides and the rest of the staff at the Fulbright Foundation in Athens for their support. During that time, he and Andreas worked almost daily on matters relating to the Handbook. He is grateful to old friends who agreed to participate in the project and offered invaluable advice along the way, and to the many younger scholars whose concerns and commitments he would otherwise not have come to appreciate fully. He is grateful to every contributor who took his editorial interventions, however picky, in good cheer. Most of all, he is grateful to his wife, Sandy Keowen – for everything.

    Each one of us would like to thank the other two for a most rewarding journey. We would take such journeys together again, and again, if we could. And perhaps we can.

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