The SAGE Handbook of Survey Methodology


Christof Wolf, Dominique Joye, Tom W Smith & Yang-chih Fu

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    Part V: SAMPLING





  • Copyright

    List of Figures

    List of Tables

    Notes on the Editors and Contributors

    The Editors

    Christof Wolf is acting president of GESIS – Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences and Professor of Sociology at Mannheim University. He is currently serving as Secretariat of the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) and is a member of the Executive Committee of the European Values Study (EVS). His main research interests include sociology of religion, social networks, sociology of health, and survey methodology. He is co-editor of the SAGE Handbook of Regression Analysis and Causal Inference (2015).

    Dominique Joye is Professor of Sociology at the University of Lausanne and associated to FORS. He is involved in the analysis of inequality and life course, and is participating in NCCR LIVES in Switzerland; part of this handbook was also realized in this frame. He has published many papers in this area as well as defining the way that social-professional positions are measured in Switzerland by the Swiss Statistical Office. He is also interested in comparative surveying, and is a member of the methodological advisory board of the European Social Survey (ESS), of the executive and methodological committees of the European Values Study (EVS), and Chair of the methodological committee of the International Social Survey Program (ISSP).

    Tom W. Smith is Senior Fellow and Director of the Center for the Study of Politics and Society of NORC at the University of Chicago. He is Principal Investigator and Director of the National Data Program for the Social Sciences which conducts the General Social Survey and collaborates with the International Social Survey Program. He studies survey methodology, societal trends, and cross-national, comparative research.

    Yang-chih Fu is Research Fellow at the Institute of Sociology and former Director of the Center for Survey Research, Academia Sinica, Taiwan. He is Principal Investigator of the Taiwan Social Change Survey, a large-scale survey series launched in 1984. His recent research focuses on the social desirability effects that occur during face-to-face interviews, as well as multilevel analyses that use contacts as the building blocks of interpersonal ties and social networks.

    The Contributors

    René Algesheimer is Professor of Marketing and Market Research and Director of the University Research Priority Program ‘Social Networks’ at the University of Zurich. His main research interests lie in social networks, social media and the consequences of the digital transformation on firms and individuals. He has authored several articles in leading journals of the field, such as Marketing Science, Journal of Marketing Research, Journal of Marketing, Harvard Business Review or Sociological Methods and Research.

    Duane F. Alwin is the inaugural holder of the Tracy Winfree and Ted H. McCourtney Professorship in Sociology and Demography, and Director of the Center for Life Course and Longitudinal Studies, College of the Liberal Arts, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA. He is also Emeritus Research Professor at the Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, and Emeritus Professor of Sociology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. In addition to his interest in improving survey data quality, he specializes in the integration of demographic and developmental perspectives in the study of human lives. His work is guided by the life course perspective, and his current research focuses (among other things) on socio-economic inequality and health, parental child-rearing values, children's use of time, and cognitive aging.

    Jean-François Beaumont is Chief in statistical research in the International Cooperation and Corporate Statistical Methods Division at Statistics Canada. He is responsible for the Statistical Research and Innovation Section. His main research projects and publications are on issues related to missing data, estimation, including robust estimation and, more recently, small area estimation.

    Dorothée Behr is a senior researcher at GESIS – Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences, Mannheim. Her research focuses on questionnaire translation, translation and assessment methods, and item comparability as well as cross-cultural web probing. Besides publishing in these fields, she provides consultancy and training in the wider field of cross-cultural questionnaire design and translation.

    Nejc Berzelak is a researcher in the field of survey methodology at the Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana. The main topics of his research include questionnaire design, measurement errors, mode effects, analysis of survey response process, and cost-error optimization of mixed-mode surveys. He is participating in several research projects related to the development of survey methods and works as a methodological consultant for surveys conducted by academic, governmental, and private organizations.

    Jelke Bethlehem is Professor of Survey-methodology at the Leiden University in The Netherlands. Until recently he was also senior survey methodologist at Statistics Netherlands. His research interests are nonresponse in surveys, online surveys, and polls and media. He is author or co-author of several books about surveys.

    Paul P. Biemer is Distinguished Fellow of Statistics at RTI International and Associate Director for Survey R&D in the Odum Institute for Research in Social Science at University of North Carolina. His main interests lie in survey statistics and methodology, survey quality evaluation and the analysis of complex data. He is the author, co-author and editor of a number of books including Introduction to Survey Quality (Wiley, 2003) and Latent Class Analysis of Survey Data (Wiley, 2011).

    Jaak Billiet is Emeritus Professor of Social Methodology, Centre of Sociological Research, University of Leuven. He combines methodological research with substantial longitudinal and comparative research on ethnocentrism, political attitudes and religious orientations. He is author or co-author of many published book chapters, articles in academic journals, and several co-authored books and edited volumes including Cross-Cultural Analysis (Routledge, 2011).

    Jörg Blasius is a Professor of Sociology at the Institute for Political Science and Sociology, University of Bonn, Germany. His research interests are mainly in explorative data analysis, especially correspondence analysis and related methods, data collection methods, sociology of lifestyles and urban sociology. Together with Simona Balbi (Naples), Anne Ryen (Kristiansand) and Cor van Dijkum (Utrecht) he is editor of the SAGE series ‘Survey Research Methods in the Social Sciences'.

    Annelies G. Blom is Assistant Professor at the University of Mannheim and Principal Investigator of the German Internet Panel (GIP). Her research looks into sources of survey error during fieldwork, in particular interviewer effects and nonresponse bias. She is author and co-author of many peer-reviewed articles that appeared in scholarly journals such as Public Opinion Quarterly, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A, International Journal of Public Opinion Research, Journal of Official Statistics, and Field Methods.

    Michael Braun is Senior Project Consultant at GESIS – Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences at Mannheim and Adjunct Professor at the University of Mannheim. His main research interests include cross-cultural survey methodology and intercultural comparative research in the areas of migration and the family. He is co-editor of Survey Methods in Multinational, Multiregional and Multicultural Contexts.

    Kristen Cibelli Hibben is a PhD Candidate at the University of Michigan Program in Survey Methodology and Research Assistant in the International Unit at the Institute for Social Research's Survey Research Operations. Her research interests include respondent motivation and data quality, cross-cultural survey research, and the application of survey methods in challenging contexts such as post-conflict or in countries with little survey research tradition. She has co-authored book chapters in the present volume as well as Hard-to-Survey Populations (Tourangeau, Edwards, Johnson, Wolter, and Bates, 2014) and Total Survey Error in Practice (Biemer, de Leeuw, Eckman, Edwards, Kreuter, Lyberg, Tucker, and West, 2017).

    Jan Cieciuch is Project Leader of the University Research Priority Program ‘Social Networks’ at the University of Zurich. His interests are applications of structural equation modeling especially in psychology, with focus on the investigation of human values and personality traits. Recent publications appeared in leading journals such as the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Annual Review of Sociology, and Public Opinion Quarterly.

    Eldad Davidov is Professor of Sociology at the University of Zurich and president of the European Survey Research Association (ESRA). His research interests are applications of structural equation modeling to survey data, especially in cross-cultural and longitudinal research on which he has published many papers. Applications include human values, national identity, and attitudes toward immigrants and other minorities.

    Don A. Dillman is Regents Professor of Sociology and Deputy Director for Research in the Social and Economic Sciences Research Center at Washington State University in Pullman, Washington. His research emphasizes methods for improving response to sample surveys in ways that reduce coverage, measurement and nonresponse errors. He has authored more than 250 publications including the 4th edition of his book, Internet, Phone, Mail and Mixed-Mode Surveys: The Tailored Design Method (Wiley, 2014), coauthored with Jolene Smyth and Leah Christian.

    Claire Durand is Professor of Survey Methods and Quantitative Analysis, Department of Sociology, Université de Montréal. Her main research interests pertain to the quality of electoral polls, the historical analysis of survey data and the statistics related to the situation of aboriginal people. She is currently vice-president/ president elect of WAPOR. She is author of numerous articles, book chapters and blog posts on the performance of electoral polls in various elections and referendums.

    Stephanie Eckman is a Senior Survey Research Methodologist at RTI International in Washington, DC. She has published on coverage errors in face-to-face, telephone and web surveys and on the role of respondents’ motivation in survey data quality. She has taught sampling and survey methods around the world.

    Michelle L. Edwards is Assistant Professor of Sociology, Sociology and Anthropology Department, Texas Christian University. Her main research interests lie in research methodology, environmental risk, and public perceptions of science. She has previously co-authored an article with Don A. Dillman and Jolene D. Smyth in Public Opinion Quarterly on the effects of survey sponsorship on mixed-mode survey response.

    Michèle Ernst Stähli is Head of group International Surveys at FORS (Swiss Centre of Expertise in the Social Sciences), running in Switzerland the European Social Survey (ESS), the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP), the European Values Study (EVS) and the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Holding a PhD in sociology of work, since 2010 she has focused her research on topics related to survey methodology such as translation, nonresponse and mixed mode.

    Jessica Fortin-Rittberger is Professor of Comparative Politics at the University of Salzburg and a former member of the Secretariat of the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (CSES). Her main areas of research interest include political institutions and their measurement, with particular focus on electoral rules. Her work has appeared in Comparative Political Studies, European Journal of Political Research, European Union Politics, and West European Politics.

    Kathleen A. Frankovic retired in 2009 as CBS News Director of Surveys and Producer, where she managed the CBS News Polls and (after 2000) CBS News election night projections. Since then, she has consulted with CBS News, YouGov, Harvard University and the Open Society Foundations, among others. A former AAPOR and WAPOR President, Frankovic has published many articles on the linkages between journalism and polling.

    Siegfried Gabler is the leader of the statistics team at GESIS – Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences and Privatdozent at University of Mannheim. He is a member of the Sampling Expert Panel of the European Social Survey. His research area covers sampling designs, especially for telephone surveys and for cross-cultural surveys, weighting for nonresponse, design effects, and decision theoretic justification of sampling strategies. He is involved in several projects in the context of telephone surveys and was jointly responsible for the Census 2011 project for Germany. He has published on a wide field of statistical topics.

    Peter Granda is Associate Director of the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR). Most recently he has participated in a number of collaborative projects with colleagues at the University of Michigan including acting as Director of Data Processing for the National Survey of Family Growth and as Co-Principal Investigator of the Integrated Fertility Survey Series. He has interests in the creation and use of comparative and harmonized data collections and has had a long association with the cultures of South Asia, where he spent several years of study in the southern part of the Indian subcontinent.

    Sabine Häder is Senior Statistician at GESIS – Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences, Mannheim. She is also a member of the Sampling Expert Panels of the European Social Survey. Sabine Häder holds a Doctorate in Economics. Current research areas are: sampling designs, especially for telephone surveys and for cross-cultural surveys. She has published widely on sampling topics.

    Thomas Hinz is Professor of Sociology at the University of Konstanz. His research interests cover social inequality, labor market sociology, economic sociology, and survey research methodology, particularly survey experiments. Together with Katrin Auspurg, he authored Factorial Survey Experiments (SAGE Series Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, Vol. 175, 2015).

    Lynette Hoelter is an Assistant Research scientist and Director of Instructional Resources at ICPSR and a research Affiliate of the Population Studies Center at the University of Michigan. At ICPSR, she is involved in projects focusing on assisting social science faculty with using data in the classroom, including the Online Learning Center and, and generally oversees efforts focused on undergraduate education. Lynette is also a Co-Principal Investigator of the Integrated Fertility Survey Series, an effort to create a dataset of harmonized variables drawn from national surveys of fertility spanning 1955–2002. Her research interests include the relationship between social change and marital quality, gender in families, and the study of family and relationship processes and dynamics more broadly. She has also taught in the Department of Sociology and the Survey Methodology Program at the University of Michigan.

    David Howell is Associate Director of the Center for Political Studies at the University of Michigan, and Director of Studies for the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (CSES). His interests include public opinion, cross-national research, survey methodology, and developing local research capacity in international settings.

    Ben Jann is Professor of Sociology at the University of Bern. His research interests include social-science methodology, statistics, social stratification, and labor market sociology. Recent publications include the edited book Improving Survey Methods: Lessons from Recent Research(Routledge 2015) and various methodological papers in journals such as Sociological Methodology, Sociological Methods & Research, the Stata Journal, the Journal of Survey Statistics and Methodology, or Public Opinion Quarterly.

    Kathy Joe is Director, International Standards and Public Affairs at ESOMAR, the World Association of Social, Opinion and Market Research. She works with international experts in the development of strategies relating to data privacy legislation, and global professional standards including the ICC/ESOMAR International Code on Market and Social Research. Recent areas of activity also include guidelines on fast-changing areas such as social media research, online research as well as mobile research. Kathy has worked at various publications including The Economist and Euromoney and she is also co-editor of Research World.

    Timothy P. Johnson is Director of the Survey Research Laboratory and Professor of Public Administration at the University of Illinois at Chicago. His main research interests include measurement error in survey statistics, cross-cultural survey methodology, and social epidemiology. He has edited one book (Handbook of Health Survey Methods), and co-edited two others (Survey Methods in Multinational, Multiregional and Multicultural Contexts, and Hard-to-Survey Populations).

    Jennifer Kelley is a Research Area Specialist in Survey Methodology at the Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. Her main research interests are measurement issues, specifically questionnaire design and interviewer effects. Her operational interests include surveys conducted in international settings, particularly those in developing or transitional countries.

    François Laflamme is Chief of data collection research and innovation section at Statistics Canada. His main interests are related operational research on various aspects of survey operations to improve the way data collection is conducted and managed in order to lead to more cost-effective collection or data quality improvements. He is author of many paradata research and responsive design papers.

    Pierre Lavallée is Assistant Director at the International Cooperation and Corporate Statistical Methods Division at Statistics Canada. His fields of interest are: indirect sampling, sampling methods for hard-to-reach populations, longitudinal surveys, business survey methods, and non-probabilistic sample designs. Pierre is the author of the book: Le Sondage Indirect, ou la Méthode Généralisée du Partage des Poids (Éditions Ellipses) in French and Indirect Sampling (Springer) in English. He also contributed in many monographs and papers on survey methods.

    Edith de Leeuw is MOA-Professor of Survey Methodology, at the Department of Methodology and Statistics, Utrecht University. Her main research interests lie in online and mixed-mode surveys, new technology, total survey error, and surveying special populations, such as children. Edith has over 140 scholarly publications and is co-editor of three internationally renowned books on survey methodology: The International Handbook of Survey Methodology, Advances in Telephone Methodology, and Survey Measurement and Process Quality.

    Geert Loosveldt is Professor at the Center for Sociological Research of the Catholic University of Leuven (KU Leuven) where he teaches Social Statistics and Survey Research Methodology. His research focuses on evaluation of survey data quality with special interest in the evaluation of interviewer effects and the causes and impact of non-response error. He is a member of the core scientific team of the European Social Survey.

    Lars E. Lyberg , PhD, is senior adviser at Inizio, Inc., a research company, and CEO at Lyberg Survey Quality Management, Inc. His research interests lie in comparative surveys, survey quality and general quality management. He has edited and co-edited a number of monographs covering various aspects of survey methodology and is the co-author of the book Introduction to Survey Quality (Wiley, 2003). He is the founder of the Journal of Official Statistics and served as its Chief Editor between 1985 and 2010.

    Jared Lyle is Associate Archivist at the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR), Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. His main research interests are in data sharing and digital preservation. He is author or co-author of several publications related to managing and curating data.

    Alina Matei is senior lecturer at the Institute of Statistics, University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland. Her main research interests and publications concern different features of survey sampling, like sample coordination, estimation in the presence of nonresponse, variance estimation, etc., as well as computational aspects of sample surveys.

    Kristen Miller is the Director of the Collaborating Center for Question Design and Evaluation Research at the National Center for Health Statistics. Her writings have focused on question comparability, including question design and equivalence for lower SES respondents, and the improvement of evaluation methods for cross-cultural and cross-national testing studies. She is a co-editor of two survey methodology books: Cognitive Interviewing Methodology (2014) and Question Evaluation Methods (2011).

    Zeina N. Mneimneh is an Assistant Research Scientist at the Survey Methodology Program, Survey Research Center, University of Michigan. Her main research interests include interview privacy, social desirability biases, and interviewer effects on sensitive attitudinal questions. Her main operations interests include monitoring surveys using paradata, reducing survey error in conflict-affected settings, and international survey capacity building. She has published more than 25 peer-reviewed articles and book chapters.

    Beth-Ellen Pennell is the Director of International Survey Operations at the Institute for Social Research's Survey Research Center at the University of Michigan. Pennell also serves as the Director of the Data Collection Coordinating Centre for the World Mental Health Survey Initiative, a joint project of the World Health Organization, Harvard University and the University of Michigan. Her research interests focus on cross-cultural survey methods and their application in resource poor settings. Pennell is an elected member of the International Statistical Institute, led the development of the Cross-cultural Survey Guidelines ( and was one of the co-editors of Survey Methods in Multinational, Multiregional and Multicultural Contexts, edited by J. Harkness, M. Braun, B. Edwards, T. Johnson, L. Lyberg, P. Mohler, B-E. Pennell, and T.W. Smith.

    Adam Phillips is a research consultant and Managing Director of Real Research. He has been Managing Director of AGB Nielsen, Euroquest and Mass-Observation and CEO of Winona Research. He chairs ESOMAR's Legal Affairs Committee, and through his knowledge of the public affairs arena and experience in liaising with UK and EU regulatory bodies, has broad experience in compliance and self-regulation. He chaired ESOMAR's Professional Standards Committee for 15 years, worked with the Committee, to set up an international disciplinary process that binds ESOMAR members to uphold the ICC/ESOMAR International Code.

    Amy Pienta is a senior researcher at ICPSR in the Institute for Social Research. She is a faculty affiliate in the Population Studies Center, the Michigan Center for Demography of Aging, and the Michigan Center for Urban and African American Aging Research at the University of Michigan. Her training is in sociology (PhD from SUNY Buffalo) and demography (NIA postdoctoral fellowship at the Population Research Institute at the Pennsylvania State University). Her research centers on secondary analysis of the Health and Retirement Study (and other key datasets such as SIPP and NLS) exploring how marriage and/or family relationships affect a range of later life outcomes including: retirement, chronic disease, disability, and mortality. Her current research seeks to understand the underpinnings of a culture of data sharing in order to incentivize and strengthen this ethos across a broad range of scientific disciplines. Dr Pienta directs the National Addiction and HIV Data Archive Program (NAHDAP), funded by NIDA, and the National Archive of Data on Arts and Culture (NADAC), funded by the National Endowment for the Arts.

    Dr. Stephen Quinlan is Senior Researcher at the GESIS Leibniz Institute, Mannheim and Project Manager at the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems project. His research focuses on comparative electoral behavior, public opinion, and the impact of social media on politics. His research has been published in the journals Electoral Studies and Irish Political Studies.

    Finn Raben is Director General of ESOMAR, the World Association of Social, Opinion and Market Research, and has spent most of his working career in market research. Prior to joining ESOMAR, he had worked at Millward Brown IMS in Dublin, AC Nielsen, TNS and at Synovate. He is an ex Officio Director of MRII, the online educational institute partnered with the University of Georgia (USA); he serves as an external examiner at the International School of Management in Avans University (Breda, NL) and has joined the advisory board for the Masters of Marketing Research programme at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville.

    Melanie Revilla is a researcher at the Research and Expertise Centre for Survey Methodology at the University Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain. Her main research interests lie in survey methodology, quality of questions, questionnaire design, web and mobile web surveys. She is author of a series of papers about quality of questions in different modes of data collection, and for several years she has been teaching courses on survey design, measurement errors, etc.

    Caroline Roberts is Assistant Professor in Survey Methodology in the Institute of Social Sciences at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland. Her research interests relate to the measurement and reduction of different types of survey error, particularly in mixed mode surveys. She teaches courses on survey research methods and questionnaire design for the MA in Public Opinion and Survey Methodology, and is a member of the Scientific Committee of the European Survey Research Association.

    Willem Saris is Emeritus Professor of the University of Amsterdam and momentarily visiting professor at the Universitat Pompeu Fabra in Barcelona. His research interests have been Structural Equation models and its application in improvement of survey methods, especially the correction for measurement errors. In that context he developed together with others the program SQP that makes it possible to predict the quality of questions and the improvement of them. Besides that he has been involved with Irmtraud Gallhofer in the study of argumentation of politicians. In all three fields he has made many publications.

    Peter Schmidt is Professor Emeritus of social science methodology at the University of Giessen. His research concentrates on foundations and applications of generalized latent variable models, especially structural equation models. Applications include cross-country, repeated cross-sections and panel data. The substantive topics deal with values, attitudes toward minorities, national identity and innovation. He is, together with Anthony Heath, Eva Green, Eldad Davidov, Robert Ford, and Alice Ramos, a member of the Question Design Team for the immigration module of the European Social Survey 2014.

    Silke L. Schneider is senior researcher and consultant at GESIS – Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences, Mannheim. Her research interests cover comparative social stratification research, attitudes towards migrants, and survey methodology, especially the (comparative) measurement of socio-demographic variables. She has served as an expert with respect to education measurement and the International Standard Classification of Education for several cross-national surveys (e.g. ESS, SHARE), international organizations (e.g. UNESCO, OECD) and individual research projects.

    Rainer Schnell is the Director of the Centre for Comparative Surveys at City University London and holds the chair for Research Methodology in the Social Sciences at the University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany. His research focuses on nonsampling errors, applied sampling, census operations, and privacy preserving record linkage. Rainer Schnell founded the German Record Linkage Center and was the founding editor of the journal Survey Research Methods. He is the author of books on Statistical Graphics (1994), Nonresponse (1997), Survey Methodology (2012), and Research Methodology (10th ed. 2013).

    Barry Schouten is Senior Methodologist at Statistics Netherlands. His research interests are nonresponse reduction, nonresponse adjustment, mixed-mode survey design and adaptive survey design. He has written several papers in these areas and was project coordinator for EU FP7 project RISQ (Representativity Indicators for Survey Quality).

    Kuniaki Shishido is an Associate Professor of the Faculty of Business Administration, Osaka University of Commerce. His areas of specialty are social gerontology, social survey and quantitative analysis of survey data. He takes charge of designing questionnaires of the Japanese General Social Surveys (JGSS). He also participates in cross-cultural survey projects such as the East Asian Social Survey (EASS).

    Jolene D. Smyth is an Associate Professor in the Department of Sociology and Director of the Bureau of Sociological Research at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Her research focuses on challenges with questionnaire design, visual design, and survey response/nonresponse. She is co-author of the book Internet, Phone, Mail, and Mixed-Mode Surveys: The Tailored Design Method (Wiley, 2014) and has published many journal articles focusing on issues of questionnaire design and nonresponse.

    Martin Spiess is Professor of Psychological Methods and Statistics, Institute of Psychology, University of Hamburg. His main interests include survey and psychological research methodology, techniques to compensate for missing data, robust and semi-/non-parametric statistical methods as well as causal inference. From 1998 until 2008 he was responsible for compensating unequal selection and response probabilities as a researcher at the German Socio-Economic Panel study.

    Stephanie Steinmetz is an Assistant Professor of Sociology at the University of Amsterdam and senior researcher at the Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies (AIAS), Netherlands. Her main interests are quantitative research methods, web survey methodology, social stratification, and gender inequalities.

    Ineke A. L. Stoop is senior survey methodologist at The Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP. She is also Deputy Director Methodological of the European Social Survey, and Chair of the European Statistical Advisory Committee. Her main research interests lie in nonresponse and cross-national surveys. She is author and co-author of several books and book chapters on these topics.

    Victor Thiessen was a Professor in the Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia Canada. During his carrier he served as Chair of his department, Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, and Academic Director of the Atlantic Research Data Centre, which made Statistics Canada surveys available to academic researchers. His substantive work focused on various transitions in young people's lives. Victor loved to play with statistics and to teach others how to do the same, something he continued to do as Professor Emeritus. He passed away suddenly and unexpectedly at the age of 74 on the evening of February 6th, 2016, in the company of his wife Barbara and very close friends. He is survived by his wife, his sister, two daughters and their partners, and six grandchildren.

    Yves Tillé is professor at the Institute of Statistics, University of Neuchâtel. His main research interests are the theory of sampling and estimation from finite population, more specifically sampling algorithms, resampling, estimation in presence of nonresponse, estimation of indices of inequality and poverty.

    Bojan Todosijević is Senior Research Fellow at the Center for Political Studies and Public Opinion Research, Institute of Social Sciences, Belgrade. His research interests include political psychology, political attitudes and behavior, and quantitative research methods. He has been affiliated with the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (CSES) for a decade, mostly dealing with the integration of micro- and macro-level cross-national data. His work has been published in Political Psychology, International Political Science Review, and European Journal of Political Research.

    Vera Toepoel is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Methods and Statistics at Utrecht University, the Netherlands. Her research interests are on the entire survey process, with a particular focus on web and mobile surveys. She is the chairwoman of the Dutch and Belgian Platform for Survey research and author of the book Doing Surveys Online.

    Mary Vardigan, now retired, was an Assistant Director and Archivist at the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR), a large archive of social and behavioral science data headquartered at the University of Michigan. At ICPSR, Vardigan provided oversight for the areas of metadata, website development, membership and marketing, and user support. She also served as Executive Director of the Data Documentation Initiative (DDI), an effort to establish a structured metadata standard for the social and behavioral sciences and as Chair of the Data Seal of Approval initiative.

    Vasja Vehovar is a Professor of Statistics, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. His interests are in survey methodology, particularly web surveys. He co-authored the book Web Survey Methodology and is also responsible for the corresponding website (

    James Wagner is a Research Associate Professor in the University of Michigan's Survey Research Center. His research interests include survey nonresponse, responsive or adaptive survey design, and methods for assessing the risk of nonresponse bias. He has authored articles on these topics in journals such as Public Opinion Quarterly, the Journal of Survey Statistics and Methodology, Survey Research Methods, and the Journal of Official Statistics.

    Herbert F. Weisberg is Professor Emeritus of Political Science at The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. His main research interests include American politics, voting behavior, and political methodology. He is author of The Total Survey Error Approach: A Guide to the New Science of Survey Research.

    Brady T. West is a Research Assistant Professor in the Survey Methodology Program, located within the Survey Research Center of the Institute for Social Research on the University of Michigan-Ann Arbor campus. His main research interests lie in interviewer effects, survey paradata, the analysis of complex sample survey data, and regression models for longitudinal and clustered data. He is the first author of the book Linear Mixed Models: A Practical Guide using Statistical Software (Second Edition; Chapman and Hall, 2014), and also a co-author of the book Applied Survey Data Analysis (Chapman and Hall, 2010).

    Gordon B. Willis is Cognitive Psychologist and Survey Methodologist at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. His main research interests are questionnaire design, development, pretesting, and evaluation; especially in the cross-cultural area. He has written two books on the use of Cognitive Interviewing in questionnaire design.

    Heike Wirth is senior researcher at the Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences, GESIS, Mannheim, and also a member of the German Data Forum. She works in the areas of social stratification, sociology of the family, data confidentiality, and research methodology. She is author or co-author of several articles or chapters on the measurement of social class.

    Diana Zavala-Rojas is a survey methodologist and a researcher at the Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona. Her main research interests lie in questionnaire design, survey translation, linguistic equivalence in multilingual surveys, structural equation modeling and measurement error. She is a member of the Core Scientific Team of the European Social Survey and the Synergies for Europe's Research Infrastructures in the Social Sciences project


    The story of this Handbook covers five continents and five years! In the summer 2011, during the ESRA conference in Lausanne, SAGE contacted one of us in order to develop the idea of a Handbook of survey methodology and a team of an American, a German, a Swiss quickly joined by a Taiwanese began to elaborate the concept for the volume. Taking advantage of scientific meetings in the USA, Croatia, and Australia the editors developed a detailed proposal for the Handbook which then was reviewed by colleagues in the field contacted by SAGE (thanks to them). On the basis of these reviews the table of content was finalized and approved. The contract for the volume between SAGE and us was signed when the four of us met in Santiago de Chile for the annual ISSP meeting in 2013.

    This marked the kick-off of the second stage of producing this Handbook by reaching out to a group of internationally acknowledged experts and inviting them to contribute a chapter. We started out hoping to recruit scholars from across the world, but were only partially successful: the 73 authors contributing to this Handbook reside in Asia, Europe, and North America.

    While the chapters were solicited, written, and reviewed, we used the opportunity of a meeting in summer 2014 in Yokohama to coordinate the content and make last adjustments. Again one year later we met at the annual ISSP meeting, this time in Cape Town, and later in the summer in Reykjavik in order to finalize the last chapters, do a last adjustment to the Table of Contents and organize the writing of the introduction. A final meeting of the editors took place in Zurich in January 2016 bringing us back to Switzerland where it all started in 2011. The story of the development of this Handbook signifies its international character and reflects the importance and value we put on cross-national and cross-cultural perspectives while at the same time striving for a fair and balanced synthesis of current knowledge. Hopefully this Handbook will stimulate more survey research and the population of survey scholars will grow to the critical mass in even more regions.

    Putting together this Handbook would not have been feasible without the support of our close collaborators, colleagues, and families whom we thank for their encouragement and the freedom to pursue this work. We are also grateful for the continuous support and encouragement we have received from SAGE.

    April 2016CW, DJ, TWS, YF

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