The SAGE Handbook of School Organization presents a substantial review of the history, current status and future prospects of the field of school organization. Bringing together chapters exploring key issues, important debates and points of tension, the Handbook highlights the dynamics and interplay of the political, social, historical and cultural contexts of the field. This volume is designed to provide a much-needed critically informed and coherent account of the field, against a backdrop of increasing complexity in which schooling as an institution and schools as organizations operate. Part I: Schools as organizations; Part II: The leadership, management and governance of schools as organizations; Part III: Theoretical perspectives on schools as organizations; Part IV: Organizing in schools; and Part V: Researching schools as organizations.

Conceptions of the Leadership and Management of Schools as Organizations
Conceptions of the Leadership and Management of Schools as Organizations
Tony Bush
Introduction

Leadership and management are twin identifiers for the work of school heads, principals and other staff. Their relative importance has changed over time, as theorists, policy-makers and practitioners have redefined their views about what constitutes effective headship. Management was in the ascendancy in England following the Education Reform Act (ERA) 1988, which devolved many activities and responsibilities to school governing bodies and head teachers. These seismic changes focused heads’ attention on the newly defined ‘chief executive’ role and the previous ‘leading professional’ expectations receded into the background. Bottery (2004: 176) noted that school governing bodies sought a managerial leader: ...

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