The SAGE Handbook of Research Methods in Political Science and International Relations offers a comprehensive overview of research processes in social science - from the ideation and design of research projects, through the construction of theoretical arguments, to conceptualization, measurement, and data collection, and quantitative and qualitative empirical analysis - exposited through 65 major new contributions from leading international methodologists. Each chapter surveys, builds upon, and extends the modern state of the art in its area. Following through its six-part organization, undergraduate and graduate students, researchers and practicing academics will be guided through the design, methods, and analysis of issues in Political Science and International Relations: Part One: Formulating Good Research Questions and Designing Good Research Projects; Part Two: Methods of Theoretical Argumentation; Part Three: Conceptualization and Measurement; Part Four: Large-Scale Data Collection and Representation Methods; Part Five: Quantitative-Empirical Methods; Part Six: Qualitative and Mixed Methods.

Instrumental Variables: From Structural Equation Models to Design-Based Causal Inference

Instrumental Variables: From Structural Equation Models to Design-Based Causal Inference

Instrumental variables: from structural equation models to design-based causal inference
Christopher L. Carter Thad Dunning


Instrumental-variables (IV) analysis bridges structural equation modeling and design-based methods for causal inference. Early studies employed instrumental variables to overcome the endogeneity of price and quantity in a structural system of supply and demand curves; by finding a third variable that was correlated with the supply but not the demand of a good (or vice versa), scholars sought to map how supply and demand respond to changes in prices. More recently, researchers have used insights from IV analysis to estimate ‘complier average causal effects’ (CACEs) in randomized experiments–that is, effects for units that ...

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