The SAGE Handbook of Research in International Education


Edited by: Mary Hayden, Jack Levy & John Jeff Thompson

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    List of Figures

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    Notes on the Editors and Contributors

    The Editors

    Mary Hayden is Head of the Department of Education at the University of Bath, UK, where she is also leader of the Internationalisation and Globalisation of Education research group. Her personal research interests relate to international schools and international education, an area in which she has published widely, as well as supervising masters and doctoral students. She is Editor in Chief of the Journal of Research in International Education, and a member of the Advisory Boards of a number of international education projects.

    Jack Levy is Professor of Education at the University of Massachusetts Boston, USA, and Professor Emeritus of International/Intercultural Education at George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia. Dr Levy initiated GMU's Center for International Education and FAST TRAIN, a professional development programme for teachers in international settings. He has coordinated educational reform projects in Indonesia and Pakistan, and directed a number of grants for teachers of English Language Learners. He has published and presented throughout the world on the influence of culture and language on education. He is co-editor of the Journal of Research in International Education.

    Jeff Thompson is Emeritus Professor of Education at the University of Bath, UK, with particular interests in the fields of international schools and international education. He has published many articles and books in this area, in which he also teaches and supervises doctoral and masters students. He has been involved with the IB since its earliest days in a number of roles, including Academic Director and Chair of the Examining Board. He is a member of a wide range of advisory boards for international education projects and holds governance positions for a number of international schools.

    The Contributors

    Bassel Akar is Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Humanities, and Director of the Center for Applied Research in Education, at Notre Dame University – Louaize, Lebanon. His research has focused on learning and teaching for active citizenship in Lebanon and other sites affected by armed conflict. He has carried out consultative work with international and local organizations, including UN agencies, in developing supplemental learning resource material for citizenship education in Lebanon, Iraq and Iraqi Kurdistan.

    Michael Allan worked in international education for over 20 years. His initial research was into cross-cultural teacher/student interaction in a number of contexts, and he has published widely in this area; his most recent work is in the area of multilingual education and meta-cognition. He has presented at many international education conferences and training workshops, taught on international education masters and doctoral programmes and was a consultant for the IB and the Aga Khan Academies. He has now retired and works with orphan children in Rio de Janeiro.

    Kevin Bartlett is Director of the International School of Brussels, Belgium, having held prior leadership positions in Austria, Tanzania and Namibia. He has been actively engaged in work in accreditation, leadership training and international curriculum design, in particular as initiator of the IB Primary Years Programme. He has been involved in designing accreditation systems for the ECIS and for the CIS. He is the Co-Designer and Co-Leader of The Next Frontier: Inclusion and The Common Ground Collaborative.

    Jason Beech teaches Comparative Education and Sociology of Education in the Universidad de San Andrés in Buenos Aires, Argentina, where he researches in the use of spatial theories in educational research and in exploring the link between cosmopolitanism and education. He is a researcher of the National Council for Scientific and Technical Research of Argentina, and Associate Editor of Education Policy Analysis Archives. He is a Board member of the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES), and visiting scholar at the University of Melbourne.

    Mark Bray is UNESCO Chair Professor in Comparative Education at the University of Hong Kong. Prior to 1986 he was a teacher at the Universities of Edinburgh, Papua New Guinea and London. Between 2006 and 2010 he worked in Paris as Director of UNESCO's International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP). He is a Past-President of the Comparative Education Society of Hong Kong and of the World Council of Comparative Education Societies; in 2015 he became President-Elect of the US-based Comparative and International Education Society (CIES).

    Tristan Bunnell is a Lecturer in International Education at the University of Bath. UK. He had previously taught International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme Economics for 14 years at the International School of London, and for 10 years at Copenhagen International School. He has a PhD from the University of Southampton. He has published widely on the growth and development of both the IB and international schooling. His latest book is The Changing Landscape of International Schooling: Implications for Theory and Practice?

    Richard Caffyn is Principal of the International School of Telemark in Norway. He has worked previously as a principal, department head and teacher at various international schools in Italy, Austria, Romania and Azerbaijan, and has also worked at the International Baccalaureate Research Unit at the University of Bath. His doctoral study focused on school micropolitics and he continues to write extensively on conflict, power, leadership and the psychodynamics of international schools.

    Yao Cai is engaged in doctoral research in education anthropology at Beijing Normal University, China. She has previously completed research on cultural risk and risk control at the Confucius Institutes. Yao Cai is currently a Visiting Scholar at the Institute for International and Comparative Education in the College of Education and Human Development at the University of Massachusetts Boston, USA.

    James Cambridge teaches at the International School of London, UK. He was formerly Head of Research Projects with the IB Research Unit and a visiting research fellow at the University of Bath. He has worked in the UK, the Middle East and Southern Africa in areas including science teaching, assessment, curriculum development, initial teacher education and continuing professional development. His research interests have included enquiry into international curriculum, international schools, evaluation and intergenerational service learning.

    Kenneth Cushner Professor of Education at Kent State University, Ohio, USA, is author/editor of several books and articles in the field of intercultural education. A former East–West Center scholar, he is a Founding Fellow and Past-President of the International Academy for Intercultural Research; was a Fulbright Scholar to Sweden, twice coordinated Semester at Sea's Teachers at Sea programme (2010 and 2011), and twice served as Director of COST – the Consortium for Overseas Student Teaching.

    Andrew Davies is Head of School at the International School Bangkok, Thailand, having previously been Deputy Head. His doctoral research focused on the applicability of the Intercultural Development Inventory for the measurement of intercultural sensitivity of teachers in an international school context. Andy has over 20 years of experience in international education and has worked and studied in Australia, the UK and Thailand. He is a former IB English teacher and examiner.

    Perry den Brok is Professor of Educational Science at the School of Education at Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands. He is also the Director of Research at the same institution, as well as a teacher educator. His work concentrates on teacher–student interpersonal behaviour, multicultural and cross-national education research, science learning environments and teacher learning and professional development. He has published several articles and book chapters.

    Catherine Doherty is an Associate Professor in the sociology of education at the Queensland University of Technology, Australia. She has published research around curriculum and pedagogy for international students in Australian universities, the production of cultural difference in online internationalized education, family mobility in educational markets, the ecology of the International Baccalaureate Diploma in Australia, and ideological debates around national curriculum.

    Cheryl Lynn Duckworth is an Associate Professor of Conflict Resolution and Peace Education at Nova Southeastern University, Florida, USA. She has lived in Zimbabwe and Paraguay, and published and presented globally on peace education and peace economics. Publications include Land and Dignity in Paraguay, an article on her implementation of critical peace education curriculum in a juvenile detention home and, most recently, her book 9/11 and Collective Memory in US Classrooms: Teaching about Terror. She also co-edited Conflict Resolution and the Scholarship of Engagement: Partnerships Transforming Conflict.

    Michael Fertig is a Lecturer in Education at the University of Bath, UK. Formerly a secondary school teacher, he has been involved in teaching and working with international school educators for almost 20 years. He has been an Ofsted-trained School Inspector in England and a Subject Reviewer for the UK Quality Assurance Agency. He produced an internal IB Report on School Authorization Processes. His research interests lie in the areas of educational leadership and governance, with a particular focus upon schools in the developing world and on international schools.

    Darlene Fisher has worked for 30 years as a teacher and administrator in schools in Australia, Oman, Thailand, India, Turkey and the USA. She is currently conducting doctoral research on intercultural dimensions of leadership and is also working at ECIS with responsibility for developing educational programmes to support teachers and leaders in international schools. She also mentors heads of schools in five countries, publishes in her field and presents at conferences worldwide.

    Rebecca Fox is Professor of Education at George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, USA, where she is Director of the Advanced Studies in Teaching and Learning Program and Professor-in-Charge of the PhD Teaching and Teacher Education specialization. She teaches graduate courses in second language acquisition research, teacher research and global education. She has been actively engaged in international teacher education, working with educators in Russia, China, Nepal, France, Pakistan, Indonesia and Greece. Her research focuses on teacher professional development, critical reflection and development of intercultural competence.

    William Gerritz has served as head of school at International School Bangkok, Thailand, the American School of The Hague, Netherlands, and the International School of Curaçao. Before entering international education, he was on the faculty of the University of California, Berkeley, and worked as a policy analyst at the Far West Labs for Educational Research.

    Maria Ghosn-Chelala is Assistant Professor of Education at Notre Dame University – Louaize, Lebanon. She holds Bachelor and Master-level degrees in Computer Science from that university, and a Doctorate in Educational Leadership from Saint Louis University, Missouri, USA. She has worked with the Lebanese Ministry of Education and Higher Education on auditing and licensing private university branches in Lebanon. Her research has focused on education for global and digital citizenship as well as collaborative instructional approaches facilitated by technology.

    Alan Girelli earned his PhD in Composition and Rhetoric, at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, focusing on electronic rhetorics and networked communication systems. He directs the Center for Innovation and Excellence in eLearning at the University of Massachusetts Boston, USA. He has taught online, on-ground and blended writing and instructional design courses at graduate and undergraduate levels for UMass Boston, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, and ITT Technologies. His research interests include online learning, learning analytics, competency-based education and alternate credentialing, open educational resources, and transnational educational models.

    Trevor Grimshaw is a Lecturer in Education at the Department of Education of the University of Bath, UK, where he is leader of the Languages and Educational Practices research group, as well as teaching on the MA TESOL programme and supervising doctoral research in ELT and Applied Linguistics. Trevor has worked as a language teacher, translator, consultant teacher educator in various international contexts, and has also published and presented research in the field.

    Konrad Gunesch is Professor for International Relations at the American University in the Emirates in Dubai, having held previous posts as Professor of Global Business at Laureate International Universities in Panama, and Research Associateships at Hong Kong Polytechnic University and London's School of Oriental and African Studies. His PhD and Masters degrees in Education and Politics were undertaken in England, France, Spain and Italy, and his Law degrees and training in Germany, Canada and Sweden. He publishes and presents widely at international conferences.

    Silvina Gvirtz is General Executive Director of Conectar Igualdad, Professor at Universidad de San Martín, Visiting Professor at SUNY – Albany and researcher at National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET). She received a Guggenheim Fellowship in 2003. She served at the Ministry of Education of Buenos Aires province. She has published many books and articles in refereed journals of different countries worldwide.

    Yumei Han completed her doctoral studies in international and comparative education from the Faculty of Education at Southwest University, Chongqing, China. She has conducted extensive fieldwork research at the Luhe International Academy, Beijing. Yumei Han is currently a Visiting Scholar at the Institute for International and Comparative Education in the College of Education and Human Development at the University of Massachusetts Boston, USA. Her position at the Institute has been sponsored by the China Scholarship Council for over two years.

    Robert Harrison is Head of International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme (MYP) Development, having previously been manager for global engagement with IB. He led the 2012 review of the IB learner profile and implementation of the revised MYP. Appointed adjunct faculty at George Mason University Center for International Education, Virginia, USA, in 2007, he is a contributor to popular and scholarly studies, and frequent presenter on international mindedness. He is co-editor-in-chief of the IB Journal of Teaching Research.

    Terry Haywood has held his current post as Headmaster of the International School of Milan, Italy, for almost 30 years. During this time he also served on the Board of Directors of the ECIS and he has been a Trustee of the Alliance for International Education since its foundation. He has written and presented widely on topics in international education, initially dealing with curriculum and school improvement, but increasingly with reference to value formation, spirituality and the promotion of intercultural understanding.

    Ian Hill has been a teacher, school head, university lecturer, and Senior Private Secretary/Advisor to an Australian Minister for Education. He joined the IB in 1993 as Regional Director for Africa, Europe and the Middle East, after being head of an IB bilingual school in France. He was IB Deputy Director General from 2000 until his retirement in 2012. Dr Hill has published widely and presents at conferences throughout the world; he continues to support and advise on international education.

    Naoko Kakuta is the Representing Trustee for the International Education Resource and Innovation Center (ERIC) in Tokyo, Japan, and she also teaches at universities. Ms Kakuta has written a Training Manual for Facilitators in Environmental Education and A Facilitators’ Handbook for Human Rights Education. Environmental awareness and human rights are two major wheels supporting sustainability, and ERIC provides training for educators on these and other related issues.

    Apostolos Koutropoulos is the programme manager for an online MA programme in Applied Linguistics at the University of Massachusetts Boston, USA. He has participated in many massive online open courses (MOOCs) and has co-authored research papers with his colleagues in the MobiMOOC Research Team (MRT). He holds a BA in computer science, an MBA with a focus on human resources, an MS in information technology, an MEd in instructional design and an MA in applied linguistics. He is currently conducting research at Athabasca University, Alberta, Canada.

    Hugh Lauder is Professor of Education and Political Economy and Director of the Institute for Policy Research at the University of Bath, UK. He taught in London schools before returning to Australasia in 1977. He arrived in Bath from New Zealand in 1996. His interests include education and the economy, globalization and competitiveness, school performance and inequality, and research methodologies. He has published widely in journals and books and is a regular contributor at international conferences.

    Moosung Lee is the youngest Centenary Professor, one of the most prestigious professorships at the University of Canberra, Australia. Prior to joining the University of Canberra, he held appointments as Associate Professor and Founding Deputy Director of the Education Policy Unit at the University of Hong Kong. His current research interests are elite schooling, IB schools and social capital.

    Gillian MacNaughton is an international human rights lawyer and an Assistant Professor in the School for Global Inclusion and Social Development at the University of Massachusetts Boston, USA. Her work focuses on economic and social rights, and human rights-based approaches to social justice. She has taught at the Universities of Oxford and Sarajevo, and at Brandeis University, and has consulted on projects for UNICEF, UNDP, the World Health Organization, the World Bank, the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to health, and several non-governmental organizations.

    Harriet Marshall works on the Global Learning Programme, a UK government-funded programme supporting a national network of globally minded schools, teachers and students. Previously she was a Lecturer in International Education at the University of Bath, UK, and she has written on a range of topics relating to global citizenship education, gender and sociology of the curriculum.

    Kerstin Martens is Associate Professor of International Relations at the University of Bremen, Germany. Her research interests include theories of international relations, international organizations, global governance and global public policy, in particular education and social policy. She heads the research project on Internationalization of Education Policy located at the University of Bremen.

    Julie McLaughlin is a senior lecturer at the Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane, Australia, where she lectures in Indigenous and Culture Studies and Education, decolonizing methodologies and research ethics. Her PhD examined Australian aid to Papua New Guinea education, and provided a critique of development education, dependency theory and the cultural politics implicated in international education within a postcolonial context. She is the past President of the Australian New Zealand Comparative and International Education Society (ANZCIES).

    Dennis Niemann is Senior Researcher in the research project on Internationalization of Education Policy within the TranState Research Center 597 ‘Transformations of the State’ at the University of Bremen, Germany. His research interests include the internationalization of education policy and the role of international organizations in global governance.

    Richard Pearce has worked in the UK and the USA, in national and international schools. He has written and taught on the topic of his doctoral research, identity development in international school students, including teaching on postgraduate programmes at the University of Bath and Oxford Brookes University. Having retired from the classroom in 2012, after teaching IB Diploma Biology for 35 years, he recently edited International Education and Schools: Moving Beyond the First 40 Years, published by Bloomsbury.

    Dimity Peter is an Assistant Professor in the School for Global Inclusion and Social Development at the University of Massachusetts Boston, USA. She has worked as a consultant on issues relating to inclusion, advocacy and disability throughout Australia, Ireland and the United States. Dr Peter has also published book chapters and peer-reviewed journal articles related to the inclusion of individuals with a disability.

    David Phillips is Emeritus Professor of Comparative Education at the University of Oxford, UK and an Emeritus Fellow of St Edmund Hall. He has written widely on issues in comparative education, particularly on education in Germany and on educational policy borrowing. He was Chair of BAICE from 1998 to 2000, and is an Academician of the British Social Sciences Academy. He has been Editor of the Oxford Review of Education and serves on the editorial boards of various journals. He now edits Comparative Education, and the online journal Research in Comparative and International Education, and is series editor of Oxford Studies in Comparative Education.

    Rauni Räsänen is Professor Emerita in Education at the Faculty of Education, University of Oulu, Finland. Before her university career she worked as a primary and secondary school teacher and as a provincial supervisor for language teaching. At the university she co-ordinated two international programmes: the Master of Education International Programme (now Intercultural Teacher Education), and the Education and Globalisation Masters programme. Her main research interests include ethics of education, values and education, international (global) education and intercultural education. She is a member of the national UNESCO Commission.

    Fazal Rizvi is Professor in Global Studies in Education at the University of Melbourne, Australia, and Emeritus Professor at the University of Illinois, Urbana–Champaign, USA, having previously held a number of academic and administrative appointments in Australia, including Pro Vice Chancellor (International) at RMIT University. He has written extensively on theories of globalization, educational policy, student mobility and the internationalization of higher education.

    Boyd Roberts has been engaged in international education for nearly 40 years, and was Head of Amman Baccalaureate School, Jordan, and of St Clare's, Oxford, UK. More recently he has focused on interactions between international and global education. He directed IB's first global education project, is the author of Educating for Global Citizenship and chapters and articles in the area. He consults with schools and organizations, and he initiated and animates the International Global Citizen's Award.

    Robin Shields is Associate Professor in Higher Education Management at the University of Bath, UK. He completed a PhD in Education at the University of California, Los Angeles, USA. His research interests broadly concern the globalization of education, particularly focusing on converging trends in policy and practice and the normative and epistemological assumptions that underpin them. He has published on topics including international student mobility, conflict and education, and information technology in education.

    Martin Skelton was Founding Director of the International Primary Curriculum (IPC) and co-directed the development of the International Middle Years Curriculum (IMYC). Both these curricula address the development of international mindedness as integral to everything children learn between the ages of 5 and 14. Martin continues to work with teachers and schools around the world, with a particular focus on how children learn and how they can be helped to learn better.

    Wilf Stout was the founding Director of the International School of South Africa and of the International Schools of Cape Town. A former biology teacher, he pioneered the IGCSE whilst Secretary for Biological Sciences at the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate in the mid-1980s. He has recently been Director of Curriculum for GEMS Education in the UAE for five years and has held interim headships in Qatar, Bangkok and Cyprus. He is currently consultant Headmaster of a Round Square international school in Tanzania.

    Robert Sylvester has worked in international education since 1976, first as an international school teacher and administrator and then as a UNESCO teacher trainer in Zambia for a total of 14 years. He later served as CEO of an international school in Botswana for 10 years. He is currently Professor of Global Literacies at Bridgewater State University in Massachusetts, USA, and has just completed a manuscript for the forthcoming book: Cultivating Their Humanity: A Cultural History of International Education (1851-1950).

    Jan van Tartwijk is Professor of Education at the Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences of Utrecht University, the Netherlands. He chairs the teacher education programmes of Utrecht University and is also in charge of the Educational Development and Training group of the Faculty. His research focuses on teacher–student communication processes in the (multicultural) classroom. He is also interested in workplace-based assessment and in the impact of assessment on learning and motivation.

    Iris van Werven completed her MSc in International Development Studies with a thesis on global citizenship education in teacher education in the Netherlands. Since that time she has been engaged in the development of the ITEPS (International Teacher Education for Primary Schools) project. Currently, she is engaging in doctoral research on intercultural competence in the context of ITEPS.

    Lucas Walsh is Associate Professor and Associate Dean (Berwick) in the Faculty of Education at Monash University, Australia. He was previously a Research Fellow at the Monash Centre for Research in International Education and Manager of the IB's Online Curriculum Centre. He has held a number of academic research fellowships and has also been Director of Research and Evaluation at The Foundation for Young Australians.

    Ewan Wright is engaged in doctoral research in the Faculty of Education at the University of Hong Kong, where he holds a research Fellowship. Prior to joining the University of Hong Kong he worked with various think tanks in the UK and Hong Kong, including the Centre for Cities, Demos and Civic Exchange. His core research interests are based around international education, twenty-first-century skills, transitions to higher education and emerging forms of educational distinction.

    Theo Wubbels is Professor of Education and Admissions Dean of Utrecht University in the Netherlands. His main research interests have developed from the pedagogy of physics education, via supervision of beginning teachers and teaching and learning in higher education, to studies of learning environments and especially interpersonal relationships in education. His most recent work focuses on multicultural classes, assessment of teacher interpersonal behaviour, teacher learning and teacher cognitions about interpersonal relationships.

    Wenfan Yan is Professor and Chair of the Department of Leadership in Education at the University of Massachusetts Boston, USA. His recent research has focused on the international comparative study of leadership and effectiveness in P–16 education. Dr Yan received a major grant from the Chinese government to study the leadership role in strategic planning, academic programme development and organizational change. His research integrates both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and a variety of statistical analysis techniques.


    We have been pleased by the success which the first edition of the Handbook clearly enjoyed, in respect of fulfilling its initial aims and also in the ideas and issues that have been raised with us resulting from the use of the Handbook by teachers and researchers worldwide since its publication in 2007. We therefore reiterate our gratitude to all those who contributed to the first edition and who have laid the foundation for this edition. Over the past eight years or so there have been many changes in education systems at local, regional, national and global levels and consequently the context in which international education has been developing has had important implications for both theory and practice. Feedback that we have received directly from the wide range of readership of the first edition has been augmented by valuable reports created by a number of reviewers commissioned under the aegis of the publishers. The information that they have brought, together with the suggestions that they have made for improvement, have been invaluable in our approach to the task of undertaking the preparation of the second edition.

    This new edition comprises not only updates of chapters previously included in the first edition but it also contains a significant number of new entries, commissioned by the editors following the feedback and advice received. We are extremely grateful to all those who have contributed chapters and who have thereby been willing to share their knowledge and experience so readily. In addition, we wish to offer our gratitude to all those at SAGE who have been encouraging and supportive at every stage of the preparation of the book through to publication.

    Mary Hayden, Jack Levy and Jeff Thompson

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