The SAGE Handbook of Public Administration


Edited by: B. Guy Peters & Jon Pierre

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  • Part 1: Public Management: Old and New

    Part 2: Human Resource Management

    Part 3: Organization Theory and Public Administration

    Part 4: Administrative History

    Part 5: Implementation

    Part 6: Law and Administration

    Part 7: Politics and Administration

    Part 8: Administration and Society

    Part 9: Budgeting and Finance: Budget Watcher's Blues

    Part 10: Comparative and International Public Administration

    Part 11: Administrative Reform

    Part 12: Public Administration in Developing and Transitional Societies

    Part 13: Accountability

    Part 14: Intergovernmental Relations

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    Preface to the Second Edition

    Public administration and bureaucracy are as old as government itself, but despite that continuity there is also substantial change. The same is true of the academic study of public administration with its continuing interest in familiar topics such as public finance and accountability, and changing conceptions of management as well as continuing reforms of administration.

    This second edition of The SAGE Handbook of Public Administration reflects that combination of continuity and change in public administration. It contains a number of the same chapters from the previous edition, although all those chapters have been updated to reflect changes in the discipline and in practice. In addition, there are several new chapters that address emerging issues and changes within the public sector. Every attempt was made to make this second edition a reflection of the state of the art in public administration, just as we believe the first edition was.

    We want to thank a number of people who were instrumental in the completion of this second edition. First, we again appreciated the hard work and contributions of our section editors, and of the authors who have produced interesting and important contributions. We have also enjoyed working with our editors at Sage, notably David Mainwaring and Natalie Aguilera. We also should thank our readers who have provided useful feedback about the Handbook and helped in its development.

    B.GuyPetersPittsburgh, PA

    About the Editors

    B. Guy Peters is Maurice Falk Professor of Government at the University of Pittsburgh, USA, and also Professor of Comparative Governance at Zeppelin University. He was founding coeditor of Governance and the European Political Science Review. Among his recent publications are Institutional Theory in Political Science, 3rd edn, Interactive Governance: Advancing the Paradigm (with Jacob Torfing, Jon Pierre and Eva Sørensen) and Steering from the Centre (with Carl Dahlström and Jon Pierre).

    Jon Pierre is a Research Professor in the Department of Political Science at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden. He is also Adjunct Professor at the University of Pittsburgh and at the Nordland University College in Bodö, Norway. He held a Chair in Politics at the University of Strathclyde between 1996 and 1999. Among his recent publications in English are Debating Governance (editor, Oxford University Press, 2000), Governance, Politics and the State (with Guy Peters; Palgrave, 2000), Handbook of Public Administration (co-editor with Guy Peters; Sage, 2003), Governing Complex Societies (with Guy Peters; Palgrave, 2005), Handbook of Public Policy (co-editor with Guy Peters; Sage 2006), Debating Institutionalism (co-editor, with Guy Peters and Gerry Stoker; Manchester University Press, 2007), The Politics of Urban Governance (Palgrave, 2011) and Interactive Governance (with Jacob Torfing, Guy Peters and Eva Sörensen; Oxford University Press, 2012). He has also published numerous articles in journals such as Urban Affairs Review, Journal of European Public Policy, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory and Journal of Politics.

    About the Authors

    Kamran Ali Afzal is a career civil servant with the Government of Pakistan and has served in a range of administrative and policymaking positions over the past 19 years. He earned his PhD in political economy from the University of Melbourne, Australia. He is currently working as a joint secretary in the Finance Division, Islamabad, Pakistan, where he is responsible for medium-term financial planning, drafting annual budgetary proposals, expenditure monitoring and fiscal reforms. His areas of interest include comparative public policy, governance, government accountability structures, public finance and social development.

    James Warner Björkman is Professor Emeritus of Public Policy and Administration at the Institute of Social Studies in The Hague, The Netherlands, and has an abiding fascination with South Asia. After a BA summa thesis on the Indian National Congress and a PhD on the politics of administrative alienation in India's rural development programmes, eight of his 15 books address South Asian issues. He has held appointments in the USA, Sweden, England, India, Pakistan, Switzerland, Namibia, Slovenia and Japan.

    Marleen Brans is Professor of Public Administration and Policy at the Public Management Institute of the Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium. She is responsible for teaching and training in policy analysis and evaluation, comparative public policy, and administration–citizen interaction. Her research interests include politico-administrative relations, policy analytical capacity of civil service systems, and interactions between government and civil society. She has published in journals such as Public Administration, West-European Politics, Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis, Halduskultuur, International Review of Administrative Sciences, and European Political Science. She is a member of the Accreditation Committee of the European Association for Public Administration Accreditation.

    John M. Bryson is McKnight Presidential Professor of Planning and Public Affairs at the Hubert H. Humphrey School of Public Affairs at the University of Minnesota, USA. He works in the areas of leadership, strategic management and the design of engagement processes. He wrote Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations, 4th edn (Jossey-Bass, 2011), and co-wrote with Barbara C. Crosby Leadership for the Common Good, 2nd edn (Jossey-Bass, 2005). Dr Bryson is a Fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration and received the 2011 Dwight Waldo Award from the American Society for Public Administration for ‘outstanding contributions to the professional literature of public administration over an extended scholarly career’.

    K. Jurée Capers is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Political Science at Texas A&M University, USA. She was a 2009–2010 American Political Science Association Minority Fellow. Her research interests lie in the areas of public policy, representation, public management, race and ethnic politics, and education policy. Currently she is working on a project that combines theories of bureaucratic representation, public management and institutional structure, to understand policy implementation decisions, policy outputs and outcomes.

    Jørgen Grønnegaard Christensen is Professor in Public Administration at the Department of Political Science, Aarhus University, Denmark. His research covers, among other things, governmental organization, the interaction between politicians and civil servants, civil service reform, governmental regulation and reform as well as the impact of the EU on national administration and policy. He has published widely in journals and books.

    Tom Christensen is Professor of Public Administration and Organization Theory, Department of Political Science, University of Oslo, Norway. He is also Adjunct Professor at Uni Rokkan Centre and City University of Hong Kong. His major field of research is comparative public reforms, based on organization theory perspectives. He has published extensively in all the major journals in the field of public administration and he is part of several international research networks and projects. His latest book, co-edited with Per Lægreid, is The Ashgate Research Companion to New Public Management (2011).

    Mark Considine is Professor of Political Science and the Dean of the Faculty of Arts at The University of Melbourne, Australia. His research areas include governance studies, comparative social policy, employment services, public sector reform, local development, and organizational development. Mark is a Fellow of the Institute of Public Administration Australia (Victoria) and the Australian Academy of Social Sciences.

    Paul Craig is Professor of English Law at St John's College, Oxford, UK. His academic field covers European Union law, administrative law, constitutional law and comparative administrative law. His research spans broad areas within these subjects and includes issues of theory, institutional design and legal doctrine. This work is characterised by an inter-disciplinary and contextual focus.

    Carl Dahlström is Associate Professor in the Department of Political Science and the Quality of Government Institute, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. He has previously been a visiting scholar at Harvard University, at the Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research and had a fellowship at the Swedish Parliament. His research is mainly concerned with comparative and historical perspectives on public administration, corruption and welfare state policymaking. His papers have appeared in a broad range of peer-reviewed journals, including for example, Governance and Journal of Public Administration Research & Theory. He is also co-editor of the book Steering from the Centre: Strengthening Political Control in Western Democracies (University of Toronto Press), and contributor to handbooks in public administration and political corruption.

    Christoph Demmke is Professor of Comparative Public Administration at the European Institute of Public Administration in Maastricht, The Netherlands, and Visiting Professor at the College of Europe. He holds a PhD in Administrative Sciences and has taught comparative public administration at several European universities, national civil service academies and European institutions. He was an Emile Noel Fellow at Harvard Law School and visiting fellow at American University and the University of Georgia. His fields of specialisation are comparative studies of public service reform including human resource management reforms. He has published many books and articles on comparative public service reforms and public-service ethics, among other topics. He has regularly advised the different EU Presidencies in the field of public services reforms and human resource management reforms.

    Dionyssis G. Dimitrakopoulos is Senior Lecturer in Politics at Birkbeck College, University of London, UK, where he directs the MSc programme in European politics and policy. He has published extensively on various aspects of the politics of European integration. He is the author of The Power of the Centre: Central Governments and the Macro-implementation of EU Public Policy (Manchester University Press, 2008) and the editor of Social Democracy and European Integration: The Politics of Preference Formation (Routledge, 2011).

    Gavin Drewry is Emeritus Professor of Public Administration at Royal Holloway, University of London, UK, an Honorary Professor in the Faculty of Law at University College London and a Visiting Research Fellow in the Centre for Capital Punishment Studies at the University of Westminster. He is a member of the Council of Administration of the International Institute of Administrative Sciences. In an academic career spanning more than 40 years, he has taught and researched across a very wide range of subjects in political science and public administration. He has a particular interest in the interface between public law and politics and government and has published extensively in that cross-disciplinary area.

    O. P. Dwivedi, PhD, Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, is Professor Emeritus, Department of Political Science, University of Guelph, Canada, where he has taught since 1967. He was one of the first Project Directors of IASIA Working Groups established in 1974, and Vice President for North America from 1989 to 1998. He has published 36 books and over 150 scholarly chapters and articles in various professional journals and academic books. His research interests include comparative public policy and management, development administration, public service morality and values and environmental ethics. He was consultant to the World Bank, UNESCO, WHO, UNO, UN-ESCAP, IDRC and CIDA. He is recipient of honorary degrees from Lethbridge and Waterloo Universities of Canada, as well as of various international awards. In 2005, he was appointed a member of the Order of Canada, the highest civilian honour, by the Government of Canada.

    Morten Egeberg is Professor of Public Policy and Administration and holds a joint position at the Department of Political Science and at ARENA – Centre for European Studies, University of Oslo, Norway. His academic interests encompass the relationship between organization structure and decision behaviour within national executives as well as in the European Commission and EU agencies. He also studies new patterns of interaction between levels of governance, particularly between the European and the national.

    David Feldman, QC, DCL, FBA, is Rouse Ball Professor of English Law, University of Cambridge, UK, a Fellow of Downing College, Cambridge and an Academic Associate at 39 Essex Street, London. From 2002 until 2010 he was a Judge of the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Vice-President 2006–2009). He was Legal Adviser to the Parliamentary Joint Select Committee on Human Rights 2000–2004, and has advised several other parliamentary committees. He held posts at the Universities of Bristol (1976–1992) and Birmingham (1992–2000) and the Australian National University (1989), and has been a visiting scholar at the University of Melbourne and the University of Nottingham. He has published extensively in the fields of police powers, administrative law, constitutional law and theory, comparative public law, civil liberties, human rights, the relationship between national and international law, and judicial remedies.

    Alan Fenna is Professor of Politics at The John Curtin Institute of Public Policy, Curtin University, Western Australia, specialising in Australian public policy as well as Australian and comparative federalism. He served as President of the Australian Political Studies Association (APSA) in 2009–2010.

    Robert Gregory is an Adjunct Professor of Politics at the School of Government, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. He was formerly a Professor of Political Science in the School, and in 2010–2011 took up an appointment as a Visiting Professor in the Department of Public and Social Administration, City University of Hong Kong. He has published widely on public administration and management, and public policy. In particular, he has focused much of his work on issues of accountability and responsibility in liberal-democratic government.

    Mark Hallerberg is Director of the Fiscal Governance Centre and Professor for Public Management and Political Economy at the Hertie School of Governance in Berlin, Germany.

    John Halligan is Professor of Public Administration, University of Canberra, Australia. His current research interests are comparative public governance and management, including public sector reform and political–bureaucratic relationships, with a focus on Anglophone and OECD countries. Recent co-authored books are Public Sector Governance in Australia (ANU Press, 2012, forthcoming), Performance Management in the Public Sector (Routledge, 2010), The Centrelink Experiment: Innovation in Service Delivery (ANU Press, 2008), Managing Performance: International Comparisons (Routledge, 2008).

    Thomas H. Hammond is Professor of Political Science at Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA. He specialises in bureaucratic studies, focusing on theories of information processing and policymaking in hierarchies, and with applications to intelligence agencies and foreign policy decision-making. He also works on theories of political institutions, especially separation-of-powers systems, and on theories of Supreme Court decision-making.

    Paul't Hart is Professor of Public Administration at Utrecht University, The Netherlands, Associate Dean of the Netherlands School of Public Administration and a fellow of the Australia and New Zealand School of Government. He has held prior chairs at the Australian National University and Leiden University. His research and teaching are in executive politics, crisis management, public leadership, accountability studies and policy analysis. He has taught and trained thousands of public officials, mainly in The Netherlands, Australia and Sweden. His recent books include Dispersed Democratic Leadership (2009), The Real World of EU Accountability (2010) and How Power Changes Hands (2011).

    Carolyn J. Heinrich, PhD, is the Sid Richardson Professor of Public Affairs at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, affiliated Professor of Economics and the Director of the Center for Health and Social Policy at the University of Texas at Austin, USA. Dr Heinrich's research focuses on social welfare policy, public management and performance management, and econometric methods for social-programme evaluation.

    Rita M. Hilton is a Senior Consultant at the Center for Human Capital Innovation, Alexandria, USA. Her academic training spans the fields of institutional economics and organizational psychology. She was a development economist at the World Bank for 15 years. Since leaving the Bank in 2005 she has built a successful record as an executive coach and consultant focused on helping clients improve organizational effectiveness. She specialises in working with organizations managed by technical experts (e.g., scientists and engineers).

    Karen M. Hult is Professor of Political Science and core faculty member at the Center for Public Administration and Policy at Virginia Tech, USA. Her primary research emphases are US executive institutions, organizational/institutional design and dynamics, and social science methodologies. The author or co-author of four books and numerous journal articles, Hult currently is working on a co-authored volume on White House chiefs of staff and a book on structuring and governance in public organizations and policy networks.

    Goran Hyden is Distinguished Professor Emeritus in Political Science at the University of Florida, Gainesville, USA. He has authored many books and articles on African politics and public administration in comparative perspective, and has served as consultant to many international organizations on governance issues.

    Patricia W. Ingraham is Founding Dean of the College of Community and Public Affairs at Binghamton University, USA. Formerly a Distinguished Professor of Public Administration at the Maxwell School at Syracuse University, Ingraham has received numerous honours for her teaching and research, including the John Gaus Award from the American Political Science Association, the Dwight Waldo Award from the Society for Public Administration and the Levine Award for Distinguished Research from NASPAA. Ingraham is the editor and author of 14 volumes on governance and numerous scholarly articles. She received her doctorate from Binghamton University and her bachelor's degree from Macalester College.

    Philip G. Joyce is Professor of Management, Finance, and Leadership at the Maryland School of Public Policy, USA. He is Editor of Public Budgeting and Finance, and a Fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration. Professor Joyce's research mainly focuses on two issues – linkages between performance information and the budget, and the US Congressional budget process. His most recent book is The Congressional Budget Office: Honest Numbers, Power and Policymaking (Georgetown University Press, 2011).

    Jack H. Knott is the Erwin and Ione Piper Dean and Professor at the Sol Price School of Public Policy at the University of Southern California, USA. He is a scholar in the fields of organization theory, public management and public policy. His research focuses on the impact of institutions and decision-making processes on public policy, with a particular focus on economic, regulatory and monetary policy. He has also done considerable work on government and bureaucratic reform. He is an elected Fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration, USA.

    Leonard Kok is CEO of the Department for Economic and Urban Development of the Municipality of The Hague in The Netherlands. His academic background is a masters degree in political science at the University of Leiden and a masters degree in public administration at The Netherlands School for Government in The Hague. He worked for 13 years in the Ministry of Finance, in the last years as Director for Budget Affairs.

    Per Lægreid is Professor at the Department of Administration and Organization Theory, Bergen University, Norway, and Senior Researcher at the Uni Rokkan Centre, Bergen. His academic field spans organization theory, institutional analyses, public administration, public management and administrative reforms. He regularly presents his research at international workshops and conferences and publishes extensively in international journals. His recent books include Government Agencies: Practices and Lessons from 30 Countries (edited with K. Verhoest, S. van Thiel and G. Bouckaert; Palgrave Macmillan), The Ashgate Research Companion to New Public Management (edited with T. Christensen; Ashgate) and Governance of Public Sector Organizations (edited with K. Verhoest; Palgrave Macmillan).

    Mordecai Lee is Professor of Governmental Affairs at the University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee, USA. He is interested in history and public relations in government and NGOs. His books on American history include Congress vs. The Bureaucracy (2011), Nixon's Super-Secretaries (2010) and Institutionalizing Congress and the Presidency: The U.S. Bureau of Efficiency, 1916–1933 (2006). Before joining the academy, he was Legislative Assistant to a Congressman, elected to five terms in the Wisconsin State Legislature and executive director of a faith-based NGO.

    Martin Lodge is Professor of Political Science and Public Policy at the Department of Government and the Centre for Analysis of Risk and Regulation at the London School of Economics and Political Science, UK. His key interests are in the fields of executive politics and regulation.

    Laurence E. Lynn, Jr is Sid Richardson Research Professor at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Austin, and the Sydney Stein Jr Professor of Public Management Emeritus at the University of Chicago, USA. His previous faculty affiliations have included the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, the Irving B. Harris School Graduate School of Public Policy Studies at the University of Chicago, the Manchester (UK) Business School, the George Bush School of Government and Public Affairs at Texas A&M University, and the Graduate School of Business at Stanford University. He spent nearly a decade in senior policymaking positions in the US Federal Government. His most recent books are Public Management: Old and New, Madison's Managers: Public Administration and the Constitution (with Anthony M. Bertelli), and a textbook, Public Management: A Three Dimensional Approach (with Carolyn J. Hill). For his public service, Lynn received the Secretary of Defense Meritorious Civilian Service Medal and a Presidential Certificate of Distinguished Achievement. For lifetime contributions to public administration research and practice, he was selected as a John Gaus lecturer by the American Political Science Association, a recipient of the Dwight Waldo and Paul Van Riper awards by the American Society for Public Administration, and the recipient of the inaugural H. George Frederickson award by the Public Management Research Association.

    Helen Margetts is the Director of the Oxford Internet Institute (OII), a department of the University of Oxford, UK, investigating individual, collective and organizational behaviour online. Margetts joined the OII in 2004 as Professor of Society and the Internet, having previously been Professor of Political Science and Director of the School of Public Policy at University College London. Her research focuses on digital governance and politics, investigating the dynamics of online relationships between governments and citizens, and collective action on the Internet. She is the co-author (with Christopher Hood) of Paradoxes of Modernization: Unintended Consequences of Public Policy Reform (2010), The Tools of Government in the Digital Age (2007) and (with Patrick Dunleavy) Digital Era Governance: IT Corporations, the State and e-Government (2006). Her policy reports on digital government for the National Audit Office undertaken with Patrick Dunleavy of the London School of Economics represent the only systematic evaluation of the UK Government's electronic presence. She currently holds an ESRC Professorial Fellowship entitled ‘The Internet, Political Science and Public Policy’, is Editor-in-Chief of the journal Policy and Internet and sits on the Advisory Board of the Government Digital Service in the Cabinet Office.

    Peter J. May is the Donald R. Matthews Distinguished Professor of American Politics at the University of Washington, Seattle, USA. His research and teaching address various facets of policy design and implementation, regulatory compliance and policy processes. He was a Fulbright senior scholar in Australia in 1991 and was a visiting scholar at University of Aarhus, Denmark in 1998 and at the University of Hong Kong in 2009.

    Kenneth J. Meier is the Charles H. Gregory Chair in Liberal Arts and Distinguished Professor of Political Science at Texas A&M University, USA. He is also a Professor of Public Management in the Cardiff School of Business, Cardiff University, Wales. In addition to his long term interest in questions of representative bureaucracy, he is working on empirical studies of public management (in the USA, the UK, Denmark and The Netherlands), race and public policy, methodological innovations in public administration, and the relationship between democracy and bureaucracy.

    Marcia K. Meyers is Professor of Social Work and Public Affairs and Director of the West Coast Poverty Center at the University of Washington, USA. She has published widely on social welfare issues including US anti-poverty and family policy, gender and family care policy, and the implementation of social programmes. With Janet Gornick she co-authored Families that Work: Policies for Reconciling Parenthood and Employment and co-edited Gender Equality: Transforming Divisions of Labor. She recently co-edited a volume on emerging issues in US social policy, Old Assumptions, New Realities: Social Policy for Families in the 21st Century.

    D. S. Mishra is an Indian Administrative Service officer presently posted as Principal Secretary, Minor Irrigation and Ground Water Department in the State Government of Uttar Pradesh in India. His administrative experience spans over 28 years serving India's State and Central Governments. He has published several articles and research papers focused on combating corruption, e-governance, good governance, public service ethics and administrative management practices in Indian and international journals and books; he has participated in many national and international seminars and conferences, and has delivered lectures in training institutions and universities. He has been visiting faculty at the University of Guelph, Canada. He holds a BTech in electrical engineering, a post-graduate diploma in human resource management, an MBA in international business and a post-graduate diploma in governance, democratisation and public policy.

    Timo Moilanen, MSocSc, is a political scientist specialising in human resource management, and for most of his professional career he has worked at the University of Helsinki, Finland. He has taught human resource management, organizational ethics and research methods at various universities. He has worked for several EU Presidencies in the European Public Administration Network, and carried out projects for several international institutions. He has conducted a number of comparative studies and evaluations on state personnel and employer policy, governing bodies and public-service ethics among the EU Member States.

    Donald Moynihan is Professor of Public Affairs at the La Follette School of Public Affairs, University of Wisconsin – Madison, USA. His research examines the application of organization theory to public management issues such as performance, budgeting, homeland security, election administration and employee behaviour. In particular, he studies the selection and implementation of public management reforms. He is a Fellow of the United States National Academy of Public Administration.

    Jorge Nef is Professor Emeritus of Development Studies at the University Guelph, Ontario, Canada. His academic field spans political science, international development and human security. He has been very active in conferences relating to international development, public administration and comparative development (especially Latin American studies) He regularly presents his research at international research conferences including LASA, CALACS and the learned societies. He has written edited and co-edited 16 books on political and international issues, and over 120 scholarly articles in refereed journals and in books on issues of human security, technology, and democracy. His most recent books are Capital, Power and Inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean (Rowan & Littlefield, 2008) and The Democratic Challenge (Palgrave, 2009). His research largely focuses on mutual vulnerability and human security/insecurity.

    Vibeke Lehmann Nielsen is an Associate Professor at the Department of Political Science, Aarhus University, Denmark. She has been visiting Research Fellow at RegNet, Australian National University and Texas A&M University. She researches and teaches in regulatory enforcement, compliance, public policy implementation and street-level bureaucratic behaviour. Dr Nielsen has published in international journals including Public Administration, Administration & Society, Regulation and Governance, and Law & Policy. She has published the following books in Danish (titles translated from the Danish): Price of Dialogue: Informal Rules, Asymmetry of Resources and Discrimination in Regulatory Enforcement (Politica, 2002); and Implementation of Public Policy (with Søren Winter; Academica, 2008). With Christine Parker she has edited the book Explaining Compliance: Business Responses to Regulation (Edward Elgar, 2011).

    Frans van Nispen holds a MPA from Leiden University and a PhD from the Erasmus University of Rotterdam, The Netherlands. He served for several years as policy analyst for the Dutch Government, before he returned to academia. He has been Affiliated Professor at Institute of Public Policy of George Mason University at Fairfax, Virginia and Senior Research Fellow at the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies of the European University Institute in San Domenico di Fiesole. Currently he is Associate Professor of Public Administration at the Erasmus University of Rotterdam. He has published in various journals, primarily on issues at the interface of policy analysis and public budgeting in a European context. He has done consultancy for the EU, the OECD and the World Bank.

    Dele Olowu is an international consultant in public policy and management, institutional analysis and capacity development/management. He has served as Professor of Public Administration and Public Policy at several universities and graduate centres for public policy and management training in Africa (Ethiopia, Namibia and Nigeria) and also in Europe (Institute of Social Studies, The Hague, now a part of Erasmus University; Maastricht University, Maastricht – all in The Netherlands). His teaching and research span comparative public administration, decentralisation and multi-level governments, roles for state and nonstate actors in institution building and development administration.

    Laurence J. O'Toole, Jr Is the Margaret Hughes and Robert T. Golembiewski Professor of Public Administration and also Distinguished Research Professor, in the Department of Public Administration and Policy, School of Public and International Affairs, at the University of Georgia, USA. He is also Professor of Comparative Sustainability Studies in the Faculty of Management and Governance, Twente University, The Netherlands. His research interests include policy implementation and public management in networks.

    Edward C. Page is Sidney and Beatrice Webb Professor of Public Policy at the London School of Economics and Political Science, UK. His academic field covers comparative public policy and administration. His recent work has examined civil service roles in policymaking. His latest books include Policy Bureaucracy: Government with a Cast of Thousands (with Bill Jenkins, 2005), From the Active to the Enabling State (edited with Vincent Wright, 2006), Changing Government Relations in Europe (edited with Michael Goldsmith, 2010) and Policy without Politicians: Bureaucratic Influence in Comparative Perspective (2012).

    Martin Painter is Professor of Public and Social Administration, City University of Hong Kong and Director of the Governance in Asia Research Centre. He currently occupies the role of University Coordinator for implementation of the Five-Year Strategic Plan. His research includes autonomy and control in Hong Kong government bodies and the adoption of western models of public management in China and Vietnam. Professor Painter has been awarded several consultancies on public administration reform in Vietnam, working in collaboration with Government of Vietnam agencies and with national and international donors.

    Argyris G. Passas is Associate Professor at the General Department of Law of Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences of Athens, Greece. He specialises in public administration and European integration. His most recent book is National Public Administration and the European Union Policy Process (2012, in Greek). He has served as an administrator in the European Parliament and has headed the Greek National Centre for Public Administration. He is a special advisor to the Government of the Republic of Cyprus on the training of public servants for the first Cypriot Presidency of the Council of the EU (2nd semester, 2012).

    Simona Piattoni is Professor of Political Science at the University of Trento, Italy, where she teaches comparative politics, European politics, multi-level governance and local government. She has worked in the past on clientelism, corruption and regional development and, more recently, on multi-level governance and European democracy. She has published on clientelism, Italy in the European Union, informal and multi-level governance, the Committee of the Regions and, more recently, higher education policy and political representation. She has served on the editorial board of Rivista Italiana di Scienza Politica, Rivista Italiana di Politiche Pubbliche, Regional and Federal Studies, European Politics and Society and European Journal of Political Research. She is currently Chair of the ECPR (European Consortium for Political Research) and President of CONGRIPS (Conference Group of Italian Politics and Society), a related section of APSA.

    Jos C. N. Raadschelders is Professor of Public Administration at the John Glenn School of Public Affairs, The Ohio State University, USA. His research and teaching interests include history of government, comparative government, civil service systems and the nature of the study of public administration. The latter topic was the focus of his most recent book (Oxford University Press, 2011). Between 2006 and 2011 he served as the managing editor of Public Administration Review.

    Beryl A. Radin is a member of the faculty at the Georgetown Public Policy Institute at Georgetown University in Washington DC, USA. She is the series editor of Georgetown University Press's Public Management and Change book series and the author of a number of books on public management issues. She received the 2012 John Gaus career award from the American Political Science Association for her scholarship involving public administration and political science, as well as several other awards for work involving public management and intergovernmental relations/federalism.

    Hal G. Rainey is Alumni Foundation Distinguished Professor in the School of Public and International Affairs at the University of Georgia, USA. His research concentrates on organizations and management in government, with emphasis on change, leadership, incentives, and comparisons of governmental management to management in the business and nonprofit sectors. The fourth edition of his book, Understanding and Managing Public Organizations, was published in 2009. Rainey serves as a Fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration. In 2009 he received the Dwight Waldo Award for career contributions to scholarship in public administration. In 2011 he received the John Gaus Award from the American Political Science Association for lifetime scholarly contributions in the joint traditions of political science and public administration.

    Bo Rothstein holds the August Röhss Chair in Political Science at University of Gothenburg, Sweden, where he is Head of the Quality of Government (QoG) Institute. He serves as Scientific Coordinator for ANTICORRP – Anti-Corruption Policies Revisited – a five-year research project started in 2012 funded by the European Union and consisting of 21 research groups in 16 countries. He has been a visiting scholar at the Russell Sage Foundation, Harvard University and Stanford University.

    Luc Rouban is CNRS Research Director and Professor at Sciences Po (Cevipof), Paris, France. His research focuses on the relationship between politics and public administrations as well as on transformations in the public sector in Europe (the civil service and state reform). He serves in the boards of Public Administration, Public Administration Review, Public Management Review, Revue Française d'Administration Publique. Among his recent publications are Politics in France and Europe (edited with P. Perrineau; Palgrave Macmillan, 2009).

    Fabio Rugge is Professor of History of Political Institutions at the University of Pavia, Italy. His academic interests focus on administrative history in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, in a comparative perspective. He belonged or belongs to the editorial board of journals like Jahrbuch für Europäische Verwaltungsgeschichte, Public Administration Review, Il Politico. He was a Jemolo Fellow at Nuffield College, Oxford; Humboldt Fellow at the Technische Universität, Berlin; and a Fellow of the Woodrow Wilson Center, Washington DC.

    Sally Selden is a Professor of Management at Lynchburg College, USA. She holds the Senior Professional in Human Resources (SPHR) certification and her primary teaching interests are in the areas of public and nonprofit management, human resource management and leadership. Her research focuses primarily on public and nonprofit human resource management. Dr Selden is a fellow in the National Academy of Public Administration and author of Human Capital: Tools and Strategies for the Public Sector (Congressional Quarterly Press, 2009), which was named the 2010 best book by the Personnel and Labor Relations section of the American Society of Public Administration.

    Steven Rathgeb Smith is the Nancy Bell Evans Professor of Public Affairs at the Evans School of Public Affairs at the University of Washington, USA. From 2009 to 2011, he was the Waldemar A. Nielsen Chair in Philanthropy at Georgetown University. Dr Smith was the editor of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly (NVSQ), the journal of the Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action (ARNOVA) from 1998 to 2004. From 2006 to 2008, he was also President of ARNOVA. His book, Governance and Regulation in the Third Sector: International Perspectives (co-edited with Susan Phillips) was published in 2010 by Routledge. His current research focuses on political advocacy by nonprofit organizations and a comparative study of innovation in local public services in the USA and Europe. He has a PhD in political science from MIT.

    Patrycja Joanna Suwaj is Professor of Law at S. Staszic School of Public Administration, Bialystok, Poland. Her academic interests span public administration, administrative law and public management. She has worked extensively in the area of civil service, anticorruption and conflict of interest research and training. She regularly presents her research at international conferences including NISPAcee (she is a co-ordinator of the Working Group of Civil Service) and EGPA. She is a member of the RENEUAL Network, EAPAA Accreditation Committee and expert for the Polish Accreditation Committee. Since 1999 she has served as the Executive Director of the Polish Association of Public Administration Education (SEAP).

    Jean-Claude Thoenig is a Senior Research Director at the French National Center for Scientific Research. He currently is a member of Dauphine Recherche en Management (University of Paris Dauphine). A sociologist and political scientist, he has made relevant contributions in fields such as organization theory, local government, intergovernmental relations, bureaucracy theory, public management and policy analysis. His current research interests deal with the way universities produce academic quality. He favours field and comparative research. He also works on profit-oriented organizations and management.

    Paul G. Thomas is Professor Emeritus in Political Studies at the University of Manitoba, Canada where he taught for 40 years. He has written several books and over 200 chapters and articles on various public administration topics. He has served as a consultant to governments in Canada and elsewhere and has been recognised with numerous awards for his contributions to the field.

    James R. Thompson is Associate Professor in the Department of Public Administration at the University of Illinois – Chicago, USA, where he teaches courses in public personnel management, information technology and public management. Topics on which he has written include civil service reform, human resource management innovation and organizational change in the public sector.

    Theo A. J. Toonen is Dean of the Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management (TPM) at Delft University of Technology, and Professor of Institutional Governance and Public Administration at Delft University of Technology and Leiden University, The Netherlands. He has been Chair of Institutional and Comparative Public Administration in Leiden since 1989 and became Dean of the Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences at Leiden University in 2003. In March 2008 he was appointed Dean of the Faculty of TPM at Delft University of Technology. Professor Toonen's research has focused on themes ranging from water management and governance, multi-scaled, multi-level (European) governance, (international) comparative public administration, and public sector and administrative reform to urban and regional government in international perspective. He has been policy advisor to various Dutch Ministers, member of the Independent Dutch National Advisory Committee Water (AcW; 2004–2012), and is currently at the Intergovernmental Financial Relations Council (RfV) and on the board of the StimulanSZ Foundation on Decentralisation and Social Policy.

    Tony J. G. Verheijen is Manager of the Governance and Public Sector Management Unit, South Asia Region, World Bank. He has previously held positions in the World Bank as Governance Cluster Leader in the Africa Region and Senior Public Sector Management Specialist in the Europe and CIS region, and has also held advisory and management positions in the OECD and UNDP, as well as teaching positions at the College of Europe, Leiden University, the University of Limerick and the European Institute of Public Administration. His research work has focused on comparative public management and civil service systems, the impact of political and economic transition on state institutions and on managing the challenges of multi-level governance systems. His work has been widely published in both academic and professional literature.

    Andrew Whitford is Professor of Public Administration and Policy in the School of Public & International Affairs at the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA. He concentrates on research in organizational studies and public policy, with specific interest in organization theory, models of decision-making and adaptation, and the political control of the bureaucracy. His interests in public policy include environmental regulation and public health policy. He has particularly strong interests in the use of simulation and experimental methods for understanding organizational behaviour and individual choice. He is currently a co-editor for the Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory.

    Anchrit Wille lectures at the Institute of Public Administration, Leiden University, The Netherlands. Her research and teaching cover a wide range of key issues in studies of politics and public administration: executive politics, political–administrative relationships, accountability, citizen politics, comparative politics and EU governance. Her work has been published in a number of edited volumes and in scholarly journals. She has co-authored several books. Her recent book Politics and Bureaucracy in the European Commission (Oxford University Press, 2013) is on the evolution of accountability and executive politics in the EU.

    Søren C. Winter is Professor of Political Science at SFI – The Danish National Centre for Social Research, Copenhagen, Denmark. His research focuses on policy implementation, public management, street-level bureaucracy, performance, regulatory enforcement and compliance. He is currently the principal investigator of a major research project on school management, teaching and student performance sponsored by the Danish Council for Strategic Research. He was a visiting scholar at the University of California at Berkeley in 1993–94 and at University of Washington in 1999.

    Jacques Ziller is Professor of European Union Law at the University of Pavia, Italy since 2007. He has long specialised in research and training in the fields of comparative public administration and management and also in the field of European affairs and regional integration. He has been a member of the Steering Committee of the European Group of Public Administration and is a member of the Scientific Council of the German Institute for Research on Public Administration, Speyer.

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