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The examination of personality and individual differences is a major field of research in the modern discipline of psychology. Concerned with the ways humans develop an organised set of characteristics to shape themselves and the world around them, it is a study of how people come to be 'different' and 'similar' to others, on both an individual and a cultural level. This volume explores the scientific foundations of personality and individual differences, in chapters arranged across three thematic sections: Part 1: Theoretical Perspectives on Personality and Individual Differences Part 2: Research Strategies for Studying Personality and Individual Differences Part 3: The Measurement of Personality and Individual Differences With outstanding contributions from leading scholars across the world, this is an invaluable resource for researchers and graduate students.

Implicit Measures
Implicit Measures
Michela Schröder-AbéRamzi Fatfouta

Self-observation. – Man is very well defended against himself, against being reconnoitred and besieged by himself, he is usually able to perceive of himself only his outer walls. The actual fortress is inaccessible, even invisible to him, unless his friends and enemies play the traitor and conduct him in by a secret path. Friedrich Nietzsche, Human, all too human (pp. 179–80)

Limits to introspection have fascinated philosophers and psychologists time and again (e.g., Nietzsche, 1878, trans. 1986; Nisbett and Wilson, 1977). Nietzsche even used language of warfare to describe how difficult it is to get access into people's inner experience. If introspective access is indeed limited (Nisbett and Wilson, 1977), this raises problems for psychological research that relies on self-report ...

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