The SAGE Handbook of Personality and Individual Differences: Volume II: Origins of Personality and Individual Differences

Handbooks

Edited by: Virgil Zeigler-Hill & Todd K. Shackelford

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Biological Origins of Personality and Individual Differences

    Part II: Developmental Origins of Personality and Individual Differences

    Part III: Environmental Origins of Personality and Individual Differences

  • Copyright

    Editorial Board

    Robert A. Ackerman, PhD, University of Texas at Dallas

    Jonathan M. Adler, PhD, Olin College of Engineering

    Mathias Allemand, PhD, Universität Zürich

    Jack J. Bauer, PhD, University of Dayton

    Peter Borkenau, PhD, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg

    Bradley J. Brummel, PhD, University of Tulsa

    Amy B. Brunell, PhD, The Ohio State University at Mansfield

    Susan T. Charles, PhD, University of California at Irvine

    A. Timothy Church, PhD, Washington State University

    C. Randall Colvin, PhD, Northeastern University

    Anthony D. Hermann, PhD, Bradley University

    Jan Hofer, PhD, Universität Osnabrück

    Christopher J. Holden, PhD, Appalachian State University

    Chris J. Jackson, PhD, University of New South Wales Sydney

    John A. Johnson, PhD, Pennsylvania State University

    Kevin Lanning, PhD, Florida Atlantic University

    Christopher T. Leone, PhD, University of North Florida

    Shanhong Luo, PhD, University of North Carolina Wilmington

    Charlotte N. Markey, PhD, Rutgers University

    Matthew J. W. McLarnon, PhD, Oakland University

    Kate C. McLean, PhD, Western Washington University

    Fred L. Oswald, PhD, Rice University

    Peter J. Rentfrow, PhD, University of Cambridge

    Willibald Ruch, PhD, Universität Zürich

    William G. Shadel, PhD, RAND Corporation

    Jefferson A. Singer, PhD, Connecticut College

    Ashton C. Southard, PhD, Oakland University

    Steven J. Stanton, PhD, Oakland University

    Howard Tennen, PhD, University of Connecticut Health Center

    Todd M. Thrash, PhD, College of William and Mary

    Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford, PhD, Oakland University

    Dustin Wood, PhD, Wake Forest University

    List of Figures

    List of Tables

    Notes on the Editor and Contributors

    The Editors

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill is a Professor and the Director of Graduate Training for the Department of Psychology at Oakland University in Rochester, Michigan. He earned his PhD in Social-personality from the University of Oklahoma in 2004 under the guidance of Dr Carolin J. Showers. His primary research interests are in three interrelated areas: (1) dark personality features (e.g., narcissism, spitefulness), (2) self-esteem, and (3) interpersonal relationships. He is the author of more than 180 publications including edited volumes such as The Dark Side of Personality, Self-Esteem, Evolutionary Perspectives on Social Psychology, and The Evolution of Psychopathology. He is currently an associate editor for the Journal of Personality, Journal of Personality Assessment, and Self and Identity as well as serving as a co-editor for the Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences.

    Todd K. Shackelford received his PhD in Evolutionary Psychology in 1997 from the University of Texas at Austin. Since 2010, he has been Professor and Chair of the Department of Psychology at Oakland University in Rochester, Michigan, where he is Co-Director of the Evolutionary Psychology Lab. In 2016, he was appointed Distinguished Professor by the Oakland University Board of Trustees. Shackelford has published around 250 journal articles and his work has been cited about 15,000 times. Much of Shackelford's research addresses sexual conflict between men and women, with a special focus on testing hypotheses derived from sperm-competition theory. Since 2006, Shackelford has served as editor of the journal Evolutionary Psychology, and in 2014 he founded the journal Evolutionary Psychological Science as Editor-in-Chief.

    The Contributors

    Joshua M. Ackerman is Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of Michigan and is affiliated with the Ross School of Business at UM. He received his PhD from Arizona State University in 2007. His research focuses on how adaptive mental mechanisms drive perception, decision-making, and behavior, often in non-conscious ways, with particular attention to the management of fundamental, ecological threats such as infectious disease, mating-related problems, and intergroup conflict. Much of this work is viewed through the lens of life history theory as a means of understanding person-environment fit. He also has programs of research investigating sensorimotor processing, vicarious experience, and related aspects of consumer behavior.

    Marcel A. G. van Aken studied Developmental Psychology and in 1991 defended his PhD thesis at the Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands on a longitudinal study on the development of competence. Since 2003, he has been a full professor at the Department of Developmental Psychology at Utrecht University. His research focuses on personality development in children, adolescents, and young adults, more particularly the way that transactional relations between personality characteristics and elements of the social relationships with parents and peers may result in either competence, maladaptation, or personality pathology. This research often involves studying children and adolescents in longitudinal designs but sometimes also using experimental paradigms. The subjects in this research are often typically developing children and adolescents but sometimes also involve clinical samples. For the latter, he holds an affiliation with the Center of Adolescent Psychiatry in Den Bosch, the Netherlands, where he conducts research specifically aimed at personality pathology in adolescents.

    Jüri Allik (University of Tartu, Estonia) received his first PhD from the Moscow University and the second from the University of Tampere, Finland. His primary field of research is visual psychophysics, especially perception of visual motion and numerosity. His recent research is more focused on personality, emotions, intelligence, and cross-cultural psychology. According to the Essential Science Indicators he belongs to the top 1% of the most cited scientists in the category psychiatry/psychology. He is a member of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Academia Europaea, and the Finnish Academy of Science and Letters.

    Jocelyn J. Bélanger is Professor of Psychology at New York University Abu Dhabi. He earned his doctorate from the University of Maryland, College Park. He has conducted several large-scale projects with the National Consortium for Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START) to examine the motivational underpinnings of radicalization and deradicalization among terrorists located in the Middle East and South-East Asia. In 2015, he was appointed by the City of Montréal to create the first deradicalization centre in North America to tackle homegrown terrorism (the CPRLV). Dr Bélanger is the recipient of several awards such as the APA Dissertation Research Award and the Guy-Bégin Award for Best Research Paper in Social Psychology. He is the author of numerous scientific articles published in top-tier journals and his research is funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, the US Department of Homeland Security, and Public Safety Canada.

    Karim Bettache acquired his PhD in Psychology at the Chinese University of Hong Kong and his BSc and MSc in Psychology at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. Because of a strong interest in social psychological processes related to intergroup relations and cross-cultural phenomena, after acquiring his MSc in his native country the Netherlands, Dr Bettache decided to spend several years of his academic career in Hong Kong. Besides acquiring his PhD degree, he also worked there as a lecturer for the Education University of Hong Kong, a managing editor for the Asian Journal of Social Psychology, and as a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. He is currently based in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, where he works on one of the international campuses of Monash University (Melbourne, Australia). He is strongly interested in the following research areas: intergroup relations, cultural psychology, and political psychology with a focus on dogmatism and conservatism.

    David F. Bjorklund is Professor of Psychology at Florida Atlantic University. He received a BA in Psychology from the University of Massachusetts, an MA degree in Psychology from the University of Dayton, and a PhD degree in Developmental Psychology from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He is the author of Children's Thinking: Cognitive Development and Individual Differences, now in its sixth edition (with Kayla Causey), and Why Youth is Not Wasted on the Young, as well as the co-author of Looking at Children: An Introduction to Child Development, and Parents Book of Discipline (both with Barbara Bjorklund), Applied Child Study and The Origins of Human Nature: Evolutionary Developmental Psychology (both with Anthony Pellegrini), Child and Adolescent Development: An Integrative Approach (with Carlos Hernández Blasi), and General Psychology, eighth edition (with Peter Gray). He is the editor of Children's Strategies: Contemporary Views of Cognitive Development; False-Memory Creation in Children and Adults: Theory, Research, and Implications; and Origins of the Social Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and Child Development (with Bruce Ellis). He served as Associate Editor of Child Development (1997–2001) and the Journal of Experimental Child Psychology (2005–7), and is currently serving as Editor of the Journal of Experimental Child Psychology.

    Wiebke Bleidorn is Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of California, Davis. She earned her PhD in Personality and Assessment from Bielefeld University, Germany in 2010 under the guidance of Dr Rainer Riemann. Professor Bleidorn examines the conditions, mechanisms, and consequences of personality change. Her current research involves questions about the cultural and social conditions under which people change, the genetic and environmental mechanisms that account for change, and the consequences of these changes for psychological functioning and important life outcomes. She currently serves as an associate editor of Social Psychological and Personality Science and Collabra and as consulting editor for the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, the European Journal of Personality, and Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

    Jeroen Borghuis obtained a Master's degree in Sociology and a Research Master's degree in Social and Behavioral sciences. Under the supervision of Jaap Denissen, Wiebke Bleidorn, and Klaas Sijtsma, he is working on his PhD project about personality trait development. In his PhD projects, he mainly focuses on the period of adolescence. He studies rank-order and mean-level stability and change in the Big Five and predictors of individual differences in change, such as the personality trait trajectories of best friends and siblings, everyday pleasant and unpleasant emotional and social experiences, and social status in classrooms (i.e., likability and perceived popularity).

    Turhan Canli is Professor of Psychology and Psychiatry at Stony Brook University, New York. He is the Founder and Director of the SCAN (Social, Cognitive, and Affective Neuroscience) Center (2008) and Founder and Director of the Mind/Brain Center on War and Humanity (2016), a global network of scientists, clinicians, healers, and policy experts devoted to the human condition in times of war and that is active in refugee camps in the Middle East and Africa. Turhan Canli holds an undergraduate degree (BA, summa cum laude, summo cum honore in thesi) from Tufts University, a PhD in Biopsychology from Yale University, and a Certificate in Trauma Recovery from Harvard's Program in Refugee Trauma. His work on the biology of emotion, personality, and depression has been featured in the New York Times, Huffington Post, NPR, CNN, and many international newspapers and TV programs. His TEDxStony Brook talk on his theory of depression as an infectious disease has been viewed 160,000 times on YouTube. He advises the National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, and the national science-funding bodies of Austria, Germany, Iceland, Israel, and the Netherlands. In 2010, he was elected Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science.

    Marie-Hélène Cigna is a PhD student in the School of Criminology at the University of Montreal, Canada. She earned her MSc under the guidance of Dr Jean-Pierre Guay, Professor in the School of Criminology at the University of Montreal. Her primary research interests revolve around psychopathic personality and its different manifestations, emotional intelligence (e.g., facial affect recognition, political skills, empathy), and success (such as in the business field). She received the 2013 award for the best Master's Thesis, School of Criminology, University of Montreal, for her thesis on psychopathic personality. Throughout her graduate studies, she received several grants from the Canadian government to pursue her research.

    Joanna Conde Ng is a recent Psychology graduate from the University of British Columbia, Vancouver. An advocate for positive psychology, Joanna's primary research interests lie in the influence of diet on self-esteem, and subsequently the influence of self-esteem on motivation, life satisfaction, and self-actualization. Throughout her undergraduate studies, Joanna was a Research Assistant in Dr Steven Heine's Culture and Self Lab at the University of British Columbia and presented her study on the underlying mechanisms of awe fostering a sense of meaning using virtual reality at the UBC Psychology Undergraduate Research Conference. With a keen interest in Cultural and Positive Psychology, Joanna hopes to pursue a career in Industrial-Organizational Psychology.

    M. Brent Donnellan is Professor in the Department of Psychology at Michigan State University. He earned his PhD from the University of California, Davis in 2001. His primary research interests are at the intersections of personality psychology, personality assessment, and developmental psychology. He is the author or co-author of more than 150 publications and is currently the senior associate editor for the Journal of Research in Personality and a senior editor at Collabra: Psychology.

    Bernhard Fink is a Heisenberg Fellow of the German Science Foundation (DFG) at the University of Göttingen. He earned his PhD in Anthropology from the University of Vienna in 2003. His research interest focuses on human adaptations to social perception and mating behavior. He is the author of more than 130 publications, including work on digit ratio (2D:4D), facial attractiveness, and the perception of human body movement. Recent research activities extend this work to cross-cultural studies in Africa and Russia. He is currently an associated editor of Evolutionary Psychology and Personality and Individual Differences.

    Nathalie M. G. Fontaine is Associate Professor in the School of Criminology at the University of Montreal, Canada, and a researcher at the Research Unit of Children's Psychosocial Maladjustment. In 2015, she obtained a career award from the Fonds de recherche du Québec – Santé (Junior 1 research scholar award). Her research focuses on the development of antisocial behavior in youth, as well as related risk factors (e.g., callous-unemotional traits) and outcomes (e.g., mental health problems). She is currently working on a project that aims to examine the association between facial emotion processing and callous-unemotional traits in a sample of adolescent females.

    Marc A. Fournier is Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Toronto Scarborough. His research interests are focused on personality integration, person × situation interactions, and interpersonal processes and dynamics. He is principally interested in the integrative processes through which people develop and act from a unified sense of self, and the interpersonal transaction patterns that support these integrative processes. He employs a range of methodologies as part of this research, including the intensive repeated measurement of individuals in their naturalistic settings. Professor Fournier is a past president of the Society for Interpersonal Theory and Research.

    R. Michael Furr is Professor of Psychology at Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina. His research interests include personality processes, people's interpersonal perceptions (particularly with regard to morality), personality pathology, and psychological measurement. His research has appeared in journals such as Psychological Science, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, and Psychological Methods. In addition, he has authored two books on psychological measurement, including Psychometrics: An Introduction, which has been translated into Russian. He is a fellow of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, a fellow of the Association for Psychological Science, a fellow of both Division 5 (Quantitative and Qualitative Methods) and Division 8 (Social and Personality Psychology) of the American Psychological Association, and a recipient of WFU's Award for Excellence in Research. He earned a BA from the College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia, a MS from Villanova University, Radnor Township, Philadelphia, and a PhD from the University of California at Riverside.

    Jean-Pierre Guay is Professor in the School of Criminology at the University of Montreal, Canada, and a senior researcher at the International Centre for Comparative Criminology and at the Centre de recherche de l'Institut Philippe-Pinel de Montréal. His research focuses on measuring criminal phenomena, including risk factors associated with re-offending such as psychopathic traits as well as predatory processes. He has been teaching evaluative research, statistics, and risk assessment at the University of Montreal in the School of Criminology since 1999. He is currently working on a project relying on virtual reality to increase the understanding of the processes associated with predatory behavior and victim selection.

    Takeshi Hamamura was born and raised in Japan. In high school, he made a decision to continue his study in the United States. He earned his BA in Psychology and Philosophy from the University of Minnesota. He obtained his PhD in Psychology in 2008 from the University of British Columbia under the guidance of Dr Steve Heine. He moved to Hong Kong for his first academic job and taught Social Psychology and Cultural Psychology at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. In 2014, he decided to continue his cross-cultural journey and moved to Australia to take up a position at the School of Psychology and Speech Pathology at Curtin University.

    Erik G. Helzer is Assistant Professor of Management and Organization at the Johns Hopkins Carey Business School. His research focuses on moral character, personal control and agency, and self- and social-assessment. He earned his PhD in Social and Personality Psychology from Cornell University in 2012 and his BA from Oregon State University in 2005. His work has been published in outlets such as Psychological Science, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, and Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, and has received funding from the Johns Hopkins University Berman Institute for Bioethics and the Templeton Religion Trust.

    Eranda Jayawickreme is Assistant Professor of Psychology at Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina. He received his PhD from the University of Pennsylvania in 2010. He is currently the Project Co-Leader of the Pathways to Character Project, a $3.4 million initiative funded by the John Templeton Foundation examining the possibilities for the strengthening of character following adversity, challenge, or failure. His research focuses on well-being, moral psychology, growth following adversity, wisdom, and integrative theories of personality, and he has worked with populations in Rwanda, Sri Lanka, and the United States. His awards include the 2015 Rising Star award from the Association for Psychological Science, Wake Forest University's Award for Excellence in Research, a Mellon Refugee Initiative Fund Fellowship, and grants from the John Templeton Foundation, the Templeton Religion Trust, and the Asia Foundation/USAID.

    Siobhan Kennedy-Costantini is a Research Fellow at the Auckland Bioengineering Institute and School of Psychology at the University of Auckland. She earned her PhD at the University of Queensland in Developmental Psychology in 2017 under the guidance of Associate Professor Mark Nielsen and Professor Virginia Slaughter. Her primary research interests lie broadly in the field of developmental psychology, with a particular focus on the parent–infant relationship and early social development. Her current research focuses on modeling infants’ interactive behavior, social learning, and characterizing the microdynamics of early social interactions between parents and their infants. Using these models she hopes to test how discrete changes in infants’ behavior, such as variations in social responsiveness, shape the nature of ongoing interactions with their caregiver.

    Theo A. Klimstra is Associate Professor at the Department of Developmental Psychology at Tilburg University, the Netherlands. He earned his PhD from Utrecht University in 2010 under the guidance of Dr Wim Meeus. After being a postdoctoral researcher at KU Leuven, Belgium, he joined Tilburg University in 2012. His primary research interests are personality development and identity formation in adolescence and young adulthood. He employs typological and trait (e.g., Big Five and Dark Triad) approaches to the study of personality, combines quantitative dimensional approaches with a narrative approach to study identity, and examines how identity processes and personality traits mutually affect each other.

    Christin Köber is Postdoctoral Associate in NYUAD. She earned her doctorate in Developmental Psychology at Goethe University, Frankfurt under the guidance of Professor Tilmann Habermas in 2015. Throughout her PhD years, she served as junior lecturer in the American University Paris (AUP) and in the YMCA University of Applied Sciences, Kassel. In September 2016, she joined NYUAD to work with Professor Theodore E. A. Waters on the development of autobiographical memory and the life story, contributing to well-being, the sense of self-sameness, and identity. Currently, her research focuses on the stability of the self and narrative identity as well as the interchange of identity and social context.

    Daniel J. Kruger is Research Assistant Professor at the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research. He applies evolutionary principles to advance the understanding of a wide range of human psychology and behavior. Much of his work is founded on Life History Theory, which provides a powerful framework for understanding individual variation. He pursues both basic research to advance theory as well as applied projects that directly benefit the communities of study. Much of his current work leverages evolutionary theory, the most powerful theoretical framework in the life sciences, to address real-world challenges in order to promote human well-being and sustainability.

    Odilia M. Laceulle is Assistant Professor at the Department of Developmental Psychology at Utrecht University. After studying Psychology at Utrecht University, she obtained her PhD thesis at University Medical Center Groningen (completed September 2013, with honor). Both in her dissertation and in her work as a postdoctoral researcher (UMC Groningen and Utrecht University), she focused on how adversity affects adolescent development. Currently, she studies the complex interplay between individuals and their environments in the prediction of psychopathology. Specifically, she aims at disentangling longitudinal associations between person characteristics (e.g., personality, temperament) and environmental factors (e.g., stress, trauma, social relationships) in the prediction of adolescent mental health (general psychopathology and personality pathology specifically).

    Karin Machluf is Assistant Professor of Psychology at Pennsylvania State University. She received a BA in Psychology from Florida Atlantic University, and a MA and PhD in Experimental Psychology from Florida Atlantic University. She is the co-founder of the CODES lab (Cognitions of Developmental and Evolutionary Science) at PSU and the author of numerous chapters and articles on evolutionary developmental psychology. She is a section editor for the Encyclopaedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science and serves as a reviewer for the Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology, and Psychological Reports. Additionally, she serves on the council of the Southern Society for Philosophy and Psychology (SSPP). Her research interests include evolutionary developmental psychology, specifically the impact of neoteny on adult behavior and cognitions.

    Dario Maestripieri is Professor of Comparative Human Development and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Chicago. He earned his PhD in Biopsychology from the University of Rome La Sapienza in 1992. His primary research interests are the evolution of human behavior and the relationship between science and literature. He has published more than 200 articles and five books. He is the Editor-in-Chief of the journal Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology. He is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the Association for Psychological Science.

    John T. Manning is an Honorary Research Fellow at Swansea University. His PhD was from Liverpool University and focused on theoretical aspects of the maintenance of sexual reproduction and behavioral implications of sexual selection. He has published on sexually selected behavioral traits in crustaceans, insects, birds (peafowl), non-human primates (cradling behavior), and humans (fluctuating asymmetry). Since 1998, his work has focused on sex-dependent behavioral aspects of digit ratio (2D:4D), including the biological basis of gender, occupational preferences, and gender inequality across nations.

    James Marvel-Coen received his BA in Biology and English from Williams College in 2015 and his MA in Comparative Human Development from the University of Chicago in 2017. His master's research examined the relationship between morningness-eveningness and a range of physiological, self-report, psychological, and behavioral measures, in the context of how variation in morningness-eveningness might constitute a part of broader differences in life history strategy between individuals. Currently, his research focuses on circulating extracellular microRNAs in blood plasma in human patients. Apart from humans, he has also worked in crickets and E. coli. James’ research interests include evolution, development, genetics, and behavior.

    Brent A. Mattingly is Associate Professor of Psychology at Ursinus College in Collegeville, Pennsylvania. He earned his PhD in Social Psychology from Saint Louis University in 2008. His research focuses on the intersection of romantic relationships and the self, and is strongly rooted in the self-expansion model of motivation, which posits that individuals are motivated to broaden their sense of self by acquiring new and enhancing existing identities, perspectives, capabilities, and resources. Dr Mattingly has published original research in numerous outlets, including Social Psychological and Personality Science, the Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Personal Relationships, Self and Identity, and Personality and Individual Differences. He is currently an Associate Editor for the Journal of Social and Personal Relationships.

    Kevin P. McIntyre is Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology at Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas. He received his PhD from Saint Louis University in 2007. His research examines how romantic relationships affect individuals’ self-concepts. In particular, he studies how romantic relationships lead to self-concept improvement and degradation, as well as the consequences of these types of self-concept change on relationship functioning. He has published his research in outlets such as the Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Personal Relationships, and Self and Identity. He is also the creator of OpenStatslab.com, a website that provides free resources for the teaching of statistics.

    Bhavna Menon graduated from New York University Abu Dhabi with a Bachelor's degree in Psychology. She spent her final year doing research on hostile and benevolent sexism in a village in South India. Her research interests include sexism, the structure of gender roles in various cultures, and the nature of sexual discrimination in different cultures. She plans to pursue a PhD in Social Psychology.

    Nicholas M. Michalak is a third-year PhD candidate in Social Psychology working with Joshua M. Ackerman at the University of Michigan. Broadly, he uses advanced methods and statistics to study how both modern and evolutionarily-relevant threats affect how people perceive themselves and others. In his current work, he focuses on three main questions: (1) How do people mentally represent threatening persons? (2) How do people use emotional expressions in their trait judgements? and (3) What are the effects of negative stereotypes changing over time?

    D. S. Moskowitz is Professor in the Department of Psychology at McGill University in Montreal. Her main line of research is focused on personality and situational factors that influence interpersonal behavior in daily social interactions. This line of research has led her to be interested in the influence of both personal relationships and work relationships on interpersonal behavior. She is an expert on event-contingent recording measures in daily life, a form of intensive repeated measurement in naturalistic settings. She has developed indices for measuring the extent of within-person variability in interpersonal behavior, referred to as flux, pulse, and spin. Professor Moskowitz is a fellow of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology and the American Psychological Association Division on Evaluation, Measurement, and Statistics and is a past president of the Society for Interpersonal Theory and Research.

    Marcus Mund is Postdoctoral Researcher at the Department of Personality, Psychology, and Psychological Assessment at the Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Germany. He earned his PhD in 2015 under the supervision of Franz J. Neyer. His research focuses primarily on (a) the conditions and consequences of personality development, (b) the interpersonal consequences of personality development, (c) partner relationships, (d) loneliness, and (e) dynamic personality–relationship transactions.

    Franz J. Neyer is Full Professor at and chair of the Department of Personality, Psychology, and Psychological Assessment at the Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Germany. He received his PhD at the Ludwigs-Maximilians-Universität Munich in 1994 and received his venia legendi for Psychology in 2002. His research interests span topics such as personality development, dynamic personality–relationship transactions, partner relationships, friendships, and regional identity. Franz J. Neyer has authored more than 100 publications and serves as reviewer for more than 30 international scientific journals as well as advisor for leading international research councils.

    Thanh Thanh L. Nguyen graduated from Green Mountain College, Poultney, Vermont in 2017 with a BA in Biopsychology and minor in Chemistry. She started her PhD training in 2017 at the Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Rochester, MN, with a focus on Molecular Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Her work focuses on basic and translational research that allows a better understanding of the etiology of psychiatric disorders, and hence better treatment targets towards individualized medicine. Topics include the pharmacogenomics of antidepressants, biological mechanisms underlying sex differences in psychiatric diseases, and the philosophical and psychological implications of applying clinical neuroscience and technology in the management of psychiatric therapies.

    Mark Nielsen is Associate Professor in the School of Psychology at the University of Queensland, where he has been since 2002, after completing his PhD at La Trobe University. He has studied a range of interrelated aspects of socio-cognitive development in young human children and non-human primates, with his research primarily focused on charting the origins and development of the human cultural mind. He is also interested in how culture shapes the way children develop, and he has set up field sites in remote indigenous communities in the Northern Territory, Southern Africa, and Vanuatu. He has published over 70 articles and is an associate editor of the Journal of Experimental Child Psychology.

    Noёmie Nociti is a graduate student at the Université of Québec à Montréal in collaboration with the New York University, Abu Dhabi. She has served as a consultant to number of national and international agencies including the United Nations and the US Department of Homeland Security. Her research interests lie in the psychology of terrorism, the notion of identity fusion and defusion in relation to extremism, and the effectiveness of diverse psychological interventions toward a path of deradicalization. Having already contributed to several scientific publications, she wishes to use her sphere of knowledge to advance the general understanding of psychological mechanisms posing a threat to public safety in different part of the world.

    Ugo Pace, PsyD, is Professor of Developmental Psychology and Director of the School of Psychology at UKE – Kore University of Enna, Sicily. Since 2009, he has been the Director of the Clinic Psychology MA Degree at UKE, where he teaches Psychology of Adolescence and Developmental Risk and Protective Factors. His research interests are concerned with the psychological health of adolescents, focusing primarily on the development of identity and autonomy and the relative level of adjustment (behaviors, addictions, moods). He is Associate Editor of the Journal of Educational and Training Studies and an editorial-board member of the journals Child Indicators Research and Journal of Child and Family Studies. He is currently research fellow at Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain.

    Kostas A. Papageorgiou is Lecturer in Developmental Psychopathology at Queen's University Belfast and an Associate Professor in Personality Psychology at Tomsk State University in Russia. Kostas lectures on MSc courses in the School of Psychology at Queen's and supervises BSc, MSc, and PhD students’ research. He is also the convener of the course Interdisciplinary Study of Development I in the International MSc in Human Development: Genetics, Neuroscience and Psychology at Tomsk State University. Kostas is the Director of the InteRRaCt Lab and an International Associate Member of InLab at Goldsmiths and the Russian–British Behavioural Genetics Laboratory at the Psychological Institute of the Russian Academy of Education. He is also a member of the committee of the Special Interest Group in Paediatric Psychology of the Psychological Society of Ireland and a member of the International Society for Intelligence Research.

    Alessia Passanisi is Professor of General Psychology for the School of Psychology at Kore University of Enna, Sicily. She earned her PhD from the University of Catania in 2009. Her primary research interests are in the following areas: personality traits leading to dysfunctional behaviors (e.g., gambling and problematic internet use), and concepts and categorization, including the way in which people understand the world by classifying objects, people, events, or situations. She has published often in prestigious journals such as Personality and Individual Differences, Journal of Memory and Language, and Child Psychiatry and Human Development. She is currently research fellow at City University, London.

    Jennifer L. Petersen is Associate Professor in the Department of Educational Foundations at the University of Wisconsin, Whitewater. She earned her PhD from the University of Wisconsin, Madison where she worked with Dr Janet Hyde and earned her Bachelor's degree from the University of Georgia. Jennifer teaches courses in the College of Education including child development, introduction to human development, and development of the young child. Her research interests generally fall in one of two areas: (1) gender differences and similarities in academic motivation and performance and (2) gender differences in student social engagement, such as peer sexual harassment, and the effects on adolescent development.

    Anu Realo (University of Warwick, UK and University of Tartu, Estonia) is interested in personality and cross-cultural psychology and has conducted research on cultural and individual variation in personality traits, emotional experience, values, and subjective well-being. She has been a visiting professor and scholar at several universities in Belgium, Finland, Iceland, the Netherlands, Russia, Sweden, and Switzerland. Her current research also tackles complex relationships among personality, health, and subjective well-being, as well as the genetics of personality traits. She is the author of more than 130 articles in internationally renowned scientific journals and books. In 2010, she was awarded the National Science Award of the Republic of Estonia in social sciences for her studies on personality and stereotypes in a cross-cultural perspective. She is the principal investigator for the World Values Survey in Estonia and a member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the European Social Survey ERIC.

    Anne K. Reitz is Assistant Professor at the Department of Developmental Psychology at Tilburg University, the Netherlands. She earned her PhD in Personality Psychology at Humboldt University Berlin under the guidance of Professor Jens Asendorpf in 2013. She is an alumna of the International Max Planck Research School LIFE and completed her postdoctoral training at Columbia University and New York University. Her main research interests are the dynamic short- and long-term processes between the individual and the environment that underlie personality development with a focus on social relations, life transitions, sociocultural contexts, and daily life experiences.

    Richard W. Robins is Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of California, Davis. He earned his PhD in Personality Psychology from the University of California at Berkeley. His research focuses on the nature and development of personality and its consequences for important life outcomes, self-esteem processes and development, and the regulation and expression of self-conscious emotions. His publications have appeared in Science, American Psychologist, American Scientist, Psychological Review, Psychological Science, and numerous other prominent journals. He co-edited the Handbook of Personality and the Handbook of Research Methods in Personality Psychology; served as Associate Editor of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology; and is incoming Associate Editor of Personality and Social Psychology Review. He received the Distinguished Scientific Award for Early Career Contribution from the American Psychological Association, and the Theoretical Innovation Prize and the Diener Award for Outstanding Mid-Career Contributions from the Society for Personality and Social Psychology.

    Birga M. Schumpe is Postdoctoral Researcher at New York University Abu Dhabi. She earned her PhD in Social Psychology from the University of the Federal Armed Forces in Hamburg. Her main research interest lies in the science of persuasion and motivation, which she applies to various topics. Over the last years, she studied why individuals engage in extreme behaviors and how to counteract these tendencies. Building on her expertise as a clinical psychologist, she successfully developed and tested several interventions to decrease violence. Providing insights on the rehabilitation and reintegration of violent extremist offenders, Dr Schumpe also served as a consultant to the United Nations and trained prison personnel.

    Coltan Scrivner is a PhD student in the Department of Comparative Human Development at the University of Chicago and a Fellow at the Institute for Mind and Biology. He holds a BA in Anthropology and an MS in Forensic Biology. His research is interdisciplinary and includes theoretical models and empirical methods from biology, psychology, cognitive science, and anthropology. His research interests include the evolution of human behavior, violence, emotions, and stress physiology. Recently, his work has focused on using eye tracking and focus interviews to better understand how people make meaning from violence, including how this varies according to personality and individual differences.

    Jennifer Guinn Sellers is Associate Professor of Psychology at Green Mountain College in Poultney, Vermont. She received her PhD from the University of Texas, Austin, under the guidance of Robert A. Josephs and a BS in Psychology with a minor in Anthropology from the University of Washington, Seattle. Her research is focused broadly in the domain of status. She is interested in the role that contributors to our personality, such as testosterone, play in motivating individuals to seek out positions of power. She is also interested in how socially conferred status differences impact educational performance and attainment, especially in the realm of higher education.

    P. Douglas Sellers II is Assistant Professor of Psychology at Pennsylvania State University. He received his BS in Psychology from Furman University in Greenville, South Carolina and a MA and PhD in Experimental Psychology from Florida Atlantic University. He is the co-founder of the CODES lab (Cognitions of Developmental and Evolutionary Science) at PSU and is the author of numerous chapters and articles on evolutionary developmental psychology, memory, and memory development. He is a section editor for the Encyclopaedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science and the Encyclopaedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior and serves as a reviewer for the Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology, and Psychological Reports. His research interests include evolutionary developmental psychology and the functional study of memory adaptations, specifically memory for animacy.

    Dylan Faulkner Selterman is Lecturer in the Psychology Department at the University of Maryland, College Park. He received his PhD in Psychology from Stony Brook University, New York in 2011. Dr Selterman has research interests including romantic attraction and interpersonal relationships, dreaming, and morality/ethics. Dr Selterman has published original research in Social Psychological and Personality Science, the Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Attachment and Human Development, Motivation and Emotion, and Dreaming. He contributes to Science of Relationships and In-Mind magazine, and is an active member of the International Association for Relationships Research. He currently serves on the editorial board for the Journal of Social and Personal Relationships and Personal Relationships.

    Kali H. Trzesniewski is a Specialist in Cooperative Extension and Associate Director of Research for the Statewide 4-H Youth Development Program at the University of California (UC), Davis, and UC Agriculture and Natural Resources. She received her PhD in 2003 from UC Davis. She studies the development of self-views across the lifespan with extra focus on childhood and adolescence. This work is conducted in the lab, schools, and at afterschool programs, using experimental and longitudinal designs in addition to conducting and evaluating interventions. Her research has been published in leading psychological journals including Psychological Science and Child Development.

    Vijeinika Vipulananthan completed her undergraduate degree in Psychology with a First-Class Degree and has been working in mental-health trusts in London facilitating research trials as well as delivering evidence-based treatment, gaining a profound understanding of a wide range of severe mental-health disorders. Currently she is a Trainee Psychological Wellbeing Practitioner completing her training at University College London in Low Intensity Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with a special interest in perinatal psychology and long-term health conditions. Her current research interests include genetics in neurodevelopmental disorders and the efficacy of therapeutic interventions.

    Iris M. Wang is a third year PhD student at the University of Michigan mentored by Joshua M. Ackerman and Oscar Ybarra. Her research broadly applies evolutionary perspectives in explaining self-identity, social relationships, and culture. Specifically, she examines how contagious disease threats impact people's decisions in group situations, as well as people's bodily awareness. In a second line, she examines how life history strategies predict the stability of people's personality across different relationship contexts. Finally, she is interested in explaining cultural phenomena as influenced by the ecologies that people inhabit. Specifically, she is interested in whether cultural level differences can be explained by variation in ecological factors such as pathogen prevalence, genetic relatedness, and harshness.

    Theodore E. A. Waters is Assistant Professor of Psychology at New York University Abu Dhabi and a Global Network Assistant Professor of Psychology in the Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development at New York University. He received his PhD from Emory University in 2013. His research focuses on the developmental and cognitive mechanisms that account for the enduring effects of early experience across the lifespan. He integrates traditional narrative, developmental, and cognitive methodologies to advance our knowledge of how representations of early experience form, develop, and interact with the social environment to influence critical developmental processes. Currently his lab's work focuses on the development, organization, and impact of attachment representations and representations of self/identity across the lifespan.

    Eunike Wetzel is Assistant Professor of Psychological Assessment with a focus on test theory in the Department of Psychology at the University of Mannheim, Germany. She earned her PhD in 2013 from the Otto-Friedrich-University, Bamberg. Her research interests include item response theory, response biases, test construction, and the Dark Triad of personality. Her publications have appeared in journals such as Psychological Science, Educational and Psychological Measurement, Assessment, and Psychological Assessment. She currently serves as associate editor for the European Journal of Psychological Assessment.

    Yi Xu is a researcher at the USC-SJTU Institute of Cultural and Creative Industry in Shanghai Jiao Tong University in Shanghai, China. She received her BA in Electronic Engineering from Fudan University in China, an MA in psychology from Columbia University and earned her PhD in Social Psychology from the Chinese University of Hong Kong in 2015 under the guidance of Dr Takeshi Hamamura. Her research explores the adjustment of multicultural environments; cultural change, in particular Chinese cultural change; cultural differences of online social behavior. She is currently working on project focusing on how trust influences people such as economic behavior, health, as well as prosocial behaviors in consideration of Chinese culture influence.

    Corinne E. Zachry is currently a graduate student in Psychology at Wake Forest University. Her graduate research focuses on examining intellectual humility as a component of wisdom. She is particularly interested in predictors of the manifestation of intellectual humility in daily life, as well as the positive outcomes associated with being wise in the context of challenge and adversity. Her recent projects include a series of studies aimed at developing interventions to promote intellectual humility among individuals who have experienced adversity and examining the extent to which change in intellectual humility predicts other positive outcomes, such as tolerance and well-being.

    Julia Zimmermann is a Postdoctoral Researcher at the Department of Educational Psychology at the FernUniversität in Hagen (Germany). She earned her PhD in 2012 from Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena (Germany) under the guidance of Professor Dr Franz J. Neyer. Her main research interests include the development of personality and social relationships in adolescence and young adulthood, the (social) mechanisms of personality development, and the psychological conditions and consequences of geographical mobility. In particular, her research focuses on education-related international mobility experiences, such as participation in student exchange programs or degree mobility, and the personal, social, and academic development of adolescents and young adults.


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