The first volume in The SAGE Handbook of Industrial, Organizational and Work Psychology introduces key concepts in personnel and employee performance from cognitive ability and the psychological predictors used in assessments to employee and team values. The editor and contributors present a clear overview of key research in the areas of behaviour change and how to assess individual job performance - making Volume I indispensable for anyone working in or studying Human Resource Management.
Chapter 5: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors – A New Look at an Old Phenomenon at Different Levels
Organizational Citizenship Behaviors – A New Look at an Old Phenomenon at Different Levels
An organization can secure the efforts necessary to its existence, then, either by the objective inducements it provides, or by changing states of mind. It seems to me improbable that any organization can exist as a practical matter which does not employ both methods in combination. (Chester Barnard, 1938, p. 141)
A long tradition of research in the organization sciences has discussed the phenomenon of discretionary work behaviors that go above and beyond the formal call of duty and that are essential to the effective functioning of the organization. Starting with the early work of ...