Historical geography is an active, theoretically-informed and vibrant field of study within modern geography, with strong interdisciplinary connections with the humanities and the social sciences. The SAGE Handbook of Historical Geography provides an international and in-depth overview of the field with chapters that examine the history, present condition and future significance of historical geography in relation to recent developments and current research. The Handbook is in two volumes, divided across nine parts. Volume One includes commentaries on the history and geography of historical geography, and reviews how historical geographers have considered the appropriation, management and representation of landscape, the changing geographies of property, land, money and financial capital, and the demographic, medical and political analysis of the world's growing and mobile population. Volume Two shows how historical geographers have made significant contributions to geopolitical debates about the relationships between nation-states and empires, to environmental challenges posed by human interaction with the natural world, to studies of the cultural, intellectual and political implications of modern science and technology, and to investigations of communicative action, artefacts, performances and representations. The final part reviews the methodological and ethical challenges of historical geography as a publicly engaged research practice. Part 1: Histories and Geographies; Part 2: Land and Landscapes; Part 3: Property and Money; Part 4: Population and Mobility; Part 5: Territory and Geopolitics; Part 6: Environment and Nature; Part 7: Science and Technology; Part 8: Meaning and Communication; and Part 9: Studies in Practice.
Chapter 43: Cultures of Regulation and Calibration
Cultures of Regulation and Calibration
From the late eighteenth century onwards, scientific instruments became increasingly central to claims for reliably knowing the world. Who used what instruments, and how, mattered. This chapter examines the cultures of regulation and calibration that developed around instrumental and inscriptive practices in relation to exploration, surveying and travel from the late eighteenth through until the early twentieth centuries. It considers why instruments of exploration have attracted only relatively limited interest from historical geographers to date, but why this is – and indeed should be – changing. The chapter outlines productive engagements with the related and sometimes overlapping histories of science and technology, and suggests that more might be done in borrowing from these disciplines, ...