This two-volume Handbook provides a major thematic overview of global sexualities, spanning each of the continents, and its study, which is both reflective and prospective, and includes traditional approaches and emerging themes. The Handbook offers a robust theoretical underpinning and critical outlook on current global, glocal, and 'new' sexualities and practices, whilst offering an extensive reflection on current challenges and future directions of the field. The broad coverage of topics engages with a range of theories, and maintains a multi-disciplinary framework. PART ONE: Understanding Sexuality: Epistemologies/Conceptual and Methodological Challenges; PART TWO: Enforcing and Challenging Sexual Norms; PART THREE: Interrogating/Undoing Sexual Categories; PART FOUR: Enhancement Practices and Sexual Markets/Industries; PART FIVE: Sexual Rights and Citizenship (And the Governance of Sexuality); PART SIX: Sexuality and Social Movements; and PART SEVEN: Language and Cultural Representation.
Chapter 41: Bodies in Transition: The Bakla as Transgender in Philippine Cinema
Bodies in Transition: The Bakla as Transgender in Philippine Cinema
This chapter explores how Philippine cinema represents the bakla – a local gender identity that conflates ideas of male same-sex desire, transvestism, and effeminacy. I argue that kabaklaan (being bakla) can be seen as a very close counterpart to male-to-female transgenderism, especially in the struggle toward social acceptance and human rights. However, one main difference between bakla and transgenderism is that the latter is framed in a pathologizing framework in that the history of the term and its deployment stem from a psychosexological discourse that sought to ‘cure’ transgender people of a mental disorder. Transgender, of course, ...