This two-volume Handbook provides a major thematic overview of global sexualities, spanning each of the continents, and its study, which is both reflective and prospective, and includes traditional approaches and emerging themes. The Handbook offers a robust theoretical underpinning and critical outlook on current global, glocal, and 'new' sexualities and practices, whilst offering an extensive reflection on current challenges and future directions of the field. The broad coverage of topics engages with a range of theories, and maintains a multi-disciplinary framework. PART ONE: Understanding Sexuality: Epistemologies/Conceptual and Methodological Challenges; PART TWO: Enforcing and Challenging Sexual Norms; PART THREE: Interrogating/Undoing Sexual Categories; PART FOUR: Enhancement Practices and Sexual Markets/Industries; PART FIVE: Sexual Rights and Citizenship (And the Governance of Sexuality); PART SIX: Sexuality and Social Movements; and PART SEVEN: Language and Cultural Representation.
Chapter 18: Hijras in South Asia: Rethinking the Dominant Representations
Hijras in South Asia: Rethinking the Dominant Representations
Hijra is a publicly institutionalized subculture in South Asia comprising people typically assigned a male gender at birth who later in life often rid themselves of their genitals and become feminine-identified ‘non-men'.1 Although often posited as an Indian subculture in scholarship and international media, hijra is also evident in Pakistani and Bangladeshi2 cultures. Hijras are popularly described as a third sex or third gender or ‘neither men nor women’ (Nanda, 1999). Western interest in the hijra dates back at least to colonial times when the British sought to not only contain, but also eradicate the hijra subculture through criminalization.3 Various contemporary and postcolonial representations ...