The SAGE Handbook of Frankfurt School Critical Theory expounds the development of critical theory from its founding thinkers to its contemporary formulations in an interdisciplinary setting. It maps the terrain of a critical social theory, expounding its distinctive character vis-a-vis alternative theoretical perspectives, exploring its theoretical foundations and developments, conceptualising its subject matters both past and present, and signalling its possible future in a time of great uncertainty. Taking a distinctively theoretical, interdisciplinary, international and contemporary perspective on the topic, this wide-ranging collection of chapters is arranged thematically over three volumes: Volume I: Key Texts and Contributions to a Critical Theory of Society Volume II: Themes Volume III: Contexts This Handbook is essential reading for scholars and students in the field, showcasing the scholarly rigor, intellectual acuteness and negative force of critical social theory, past and present.

Society and Violence

Society and Violence

Society and Violence
Sami Khatib

Capitalist Society and Violence

According to Marxist theory, violence is an inherent characteristic of capitalist class society. If the basic socio-economic relation is a violent relation, violence is not an exception but shapes, maintains and sustains capitalist reality in its ‘normal’ functioning. Violence as a relation is the most obvious expression of the asymmetry of class antagonism. Therefore, in capitalist societies the agents of violence are not merely of individual but also of structural and institutional nature. In the ongoing history of capitalist class struggle, the violence of the state (which acts on behalf of the class of capitalist and feudal landowners) is met by the counterviolence of workers or other excluded or oppressed groups. ...

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