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  • Contents
  • Subject index

Evolutionary psychology is an important and rapidly expanding area in the life, social, and behavioral sciences, and this Handbook represents the most comprehensive and up-to-date reference text in the field today. Chapters in this Handbook address foundational theories and methodological approaches, providing a rich overview of the most important theoretical and empirical work in the field. The SAGE Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology is an essential resource for researchers, graduate students, and advanced undergraduate students in all areas of psychology, and in related disciplines across the life, social, and behavioral sciences. Part 1: Foundations of Evolution; Part 2: Middle-Level Evolutionary Theories; and Part 3: Research Methods and Strategies.

Chapter 5: The Products of Evolution: Conceptual Distinctions, Evidentiary Criteria, and Empirical Examples

The Products of Evolution: Conceptual Distinctions, Evidentiary Criteria, and Empirical Examples
The products of evolution: conceptual distinctions, evidentiary criteria, and empirical examples
Laith Al-Shawaf David M. G. Lewis Nicole Barbaro Yzar S. Wehbe

Evolution refers to a change in allele frequencies in a population over time. Change in allele frequencies can result from four different forces: mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection (e.g., Bergstrom and Dugatkin, 2012; Futuyma and Kirkpatrick, 2017). Mutation is the random change in alleles that constitute the raw material on which selection operates. Genetic drift is the random, chance-driven change in allele frequencies from one generation to the next. Gene flow, ...

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