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  • Contents
  • Subject index

Evolutionary psychology is an important and rapidly expanding area in the life, social, and behavioral sciences, and this Handbook represents the most comprehensive and up-to-date reference text in the field today. Chapters in this Handbook address foundational theories and methodological approaches, providing a rich overview of the most important theoretical and empirical work in the field. The SAGE Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology is an essential resource for researchers, graduate students, and advanced undergraduate students in all areas of psychology, and in related disciplines across the life, social, and behavioral sciences. Part 1: Foundations of Evolution; Part 2: Middle-Level Evolutionary Theories; and Part 3: Research Methods and Strategies.

Inclusive Fitness Theory
Inclusive fitness theory
Carey J. Fitzgerald

When Darwin (1859) proposed his theory of evolution by means of natural selection, he had produced an explanation of how a trait – be it physical or behavioral – could begin as a random mutation within a single organism and, over the course of generations, become a seemingly ubiquitous trait within that organism's entire species. Simply put, a trait that produces stronger benefits to survival and/or reproduction, when compared to a competing trait, will allow its possessor to reproduce more frequently than its fellow species members who do not possess this particular trait. Therefore, any gene that produces a trait which provides greater reproductive benefits than fitness costs (e.g., fewer reproductive ...

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