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Evolutionary psychology is an important and rapidly expanding area in the life, social, and behavioral sciences, and this Handbook represents the most comprehensive and up-to-date reference text in the field today. Chapters in this Handbook address foundational theories and methodological approaches, providing a rich overview of the most important theoretical and empirical work in the field. The SAGE Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology is an essential resource for researchers, graduate students, and advanced undergraduate students in all areas of psychology, and in related disciplines across the life, social, and behavioral sciences. Part 1: Foundations of Evolution; Part 2: Middle-Level Evolutionary Theories; and Part 3: Research Methods and Strategies.

Parent–Offspring Conflict
Parent–offspring conflict
Menelaos Apostolou

Parents and children are genetically related but they are not genetically identical and, as a consequence, their genetic interests do not completely overlap (Trivers, 1974). We can better see how this works with reference to Hamilton's (1964) rule, which states that altruistic behavior, meaning behavior which benefits one individual at the expense of the one who performs it, will be favored by natural selection when rB > C: The net benefit the recipient receives (B), discounted by the genetic relatedness between the two parties (r), exceeds the fitness cost to the actor (C). The ‘r’ represents the probability that, through common descent, two individuals share the same allele at any given locus, and can range ...

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