During the last two decades the study of European foreign policy has experienced remarkable growth, presumably reflecting a more significant international role of the European Union. The Union has significantly expanded its policy portfolio and though empty symbolic politics still exists, the Unions international relations have become more substantial and its foreign policy more focused. European foreign policy has become a dynamic policy area, being adapted to changing challenges and environments, such as the Arab Spring, new emerging economies/powers; the crisis of multilateralism and much more. The SAGE Handbook of European Foreign Policy, Two-Volume set, is a major reference work for Foreign Policy Programmes around the world. The Handbook is designed to be accessible to graduate and postgraduate students in a wide variety of disciplines across the humanities and social sciences. Both volumes are structured to address areas of critical concern to scholars at the cutting edge of all major dimensions of foreign policy. The volumes are composed of original chapters written specifically to the following themes: Research traditions and historical experience Theoretical perspectives EU actors State actors Societal actors The politics of European foreign policy Bilateral relations Relations with multilateral institutions Individual policies Transnational challenges The Handbook will be an essential reference for both advanced students and scholars.
Chapter 70: Environmental Challenges
The rise to prominence of environmental issues in recent decades has been a striking development in world politics. Growing public environmental consciousness in many industrialised countries from the 1960s onwards drove policymakers to seek to address environmental stresses, initially at local and national level. The arrival of environmental issues on the agenda of world politics was marked by the convening of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm in 1972, out of which the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) was created. Over the decades since then, environmental issues have grown in prominence on global agendas, with three subsequent global environmental ‘mega conferences’ occurring: the United Nations ...