During the last two decades the study of European foreign policy has experienced remarkable growth, presumably reflecting a more significant international role of the European Union. The Union has significantly expanded its policy portfolio and though empty symbolic politics still exists, the Union’s international relations have become more substantial and its foreign policy more focused. European foreign policy has become a dynamic policy area, being adapted to changing challenges and environments, such as the Arab Spring, new emerging economies/powers; the crisis of multilateralism and much more. The SAGE Handbook of European Foreign Policy, Two-Volume set, is a major reference work for Foreign Policy Programmes around the world. The Handbook is designed to be accessible to graduate and postgraduate students in a wide variety of disciplines across the humanities and social sciences. Both volumes are structured to address areas of critical concern to scholars at the cutting edge of all major dimensions of foreign policy. The volumes are composed of original chapters written specifically to the following themes: • Research traditions and historical experience • Theoretical perspectives• EU actors• State actors• Societal actors• The politics of European foreign policy• Bilateral relations• Relations with multilateral institutions• Individual policies• Transnational challenges The Handbook will be an essential reference for both advanced students and scholars.

Terrorism, Civil Wars and Uprisings

Terrorism, civil wars and uprisings
lise M. Fron

Research on conflicts and terrorism has undergone considerable paradigmatic shifts over the past few decades. Theory has always sought to explain why conflicts start, the constraints and opportunities that actors face, the characteristics of conflict, and the changing dynamics of war. Many of these aspects have been extensively scrutinized, and the importance of identity strategies, national identities, religious or ethnic belonging for explaining outbursts of violence have been explored by a large number of scholars (among many others, Banton, 1977; Horowitz, 1985; Rex, 1986; Hutchinson and Smith, 1996). But theory is also constantly evolving to keep up with rapid changes in different conflict environments, and there is ...

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