During the last two decades the study of European foreign policy has experienced remarkable growth, presumably reflecting a more significant international role of the European Union. The Union has significantly expanded its policy portfolio and though empty symbolic politics still exists, the Unions international relations have become more substantial and its foreign policy more focused. European foreign policy has become a dynamic policy area, being adapted to changing challenges and environments, such as the Arab Spring, new emerging economies/powers; the crisis of multilateralism and much more. The SAGE Handbook of European Foreign Policy, Two-Volume set, is a major reference work for Foreign Policy Programmes around the world. The Handbook is designed to be accessible to graduate and postgraduate students in a wide variety of disciplines across the humanities and social sciences. Both volumes are structured to address areas of critical concern to scholars at the cutting edge of all major dimensions of foreign policy. The volumes are composed of original chapters written specifically to the following themes: Research traditions and historical experience Theoretical perspectives EU actors State actors Societal actors The politics of European foreign policy Bilateral relations Relations with multilateral institutions Individual policies Transnational challenges The Handbook will be an essential reference for both advanced students and scholars.
Chapter 62: Development and Foreign Aid
Development and Foreign Aid
Development policy is one of the longest established policies in the EU – its roots go back to the Treaty of Rome – and is one of the most intricate areas in the field of EU studies. A primary source of complexity is its principal instrument – foreign aid. In fact, the EU can be seen as both an atypical bilateral donor, in that it transfers substantial amounts of resources directly to developing countries, and a unique collective donor, for its efforts to ‘federate’ the bilateral policies of its Member States around a common vision.1 The difficult co-existence of these two dimensions generates friction between EU supranational institutions and Member States, ...