During the last two decades the study of European foreign policy has experienced remarkable growth, presumably reflecting a more significant international role of the European Union. The Union has significantly expanded its policy portfolio and though empty symbolic politics still exists, the Unions international relations have become more substantial and its foreign policy more focused. European foreign policy has become a dynamic policy area, being adapted to changing challenges and environments, such as the Arab Spring, new emerging economies/powers; the crisis of multilateralism and much more. The SAGE Handbook of European Foreign Policy, Two-Volume set, is a major reference work for Foreign Policy Programmes around the world. The Handbook is designed to be accessible to graduate and postgraduate students in a wide variety of disciplines across the humanities and social sciences. Both volumes are structured to address areas of critical concern to scholars at the cutting edge of all major dimensions of foreign policy. The volumes are composed of original chapters written specifically to the following themes: Research traditions and historical experience Theoretical perspectives EU actors State actors Societal actors The politics of European foreign policy Bilateral relations Relations with multilateral institutions Individual policies Transnational challenges The Handbook will be an essential reference for both advanced students and scholars.
Chapter 59: Enlargement
Four decades separate the first enlargement round in 1973 – when Denmark, Ireland, and the UK joined the then European Communities (EC) – and the 2013 accession of Croatia as the EU's 28th member state. Over this period there has been extensive research of enlargement from an empirical as well as a theoretical perspective. Early studies on enlargement portrayed accession as a natural extension of the EC's internal integration processes, contributing to the birth and growth of the Community as an international presence. With the end of the Cold War and the avalanche of membership applications facing the Union in the late 1980s and early to mid-1990s, enlargement became increasingly interpreted by scholars as an instrument to ...