During the last two decades the study of European foreign policy has experienced remarkable growth, presumably reflecting a more significant international role of the European Union. The Union has significantly expanded its policy portfolio and though empty symbolic politics still exists, the Union’s international relations have become more substantial and its foreign policy more focused. European foreign policy has become a dynamic policy area, being adapted to changing challenges and environments, such as the Arab Spring, new emerging economies/powers; the crisis of multilateralism and much more. The SAGE Handbook of European Foreign Policy, Two-Volume set, is a major reference work for Foreign Policy Programmes around the world. The Handbook is designed to be accessible to graduate and postgraduate students in a wide variety of disciplines across the humanities and social sciences. Both volumes are structured to address areas of critical concern to scholars at the cutting edge of all major dimensions of foreign policy. The volumes are composed of original chapters written specifically to the following themes: • Research traditions and historical experience • Theoretical perspectives• EU actors• State actors• Societal actors• The politics of European foreign policy• Bilateral relations• Relations with multilateral institutions• Individual policies• Transnational challenges The Handbook will be an essential reference for both advanced students and scholars.


Alasdair R. Young John Peterson

Trade policy is one of the most well established areas of European cooperation and the most developed dimension of the EU's external relations. As the world's largest market and largest importer and exporter of both goods and services, the EU has significant trade power resources. In addition, competence is concentrated at the European level and decision-making is highly institutionalized. Thus the EU's competence is unusually ‘hard’ for an external policy. As a consequence, the EU has been a leading protagonist in multilateral trade negotiations for several decades. It also has used trade policy as a tool for promoting a wide-range of foreign-policy objectives, from fostering geostrategic relations to promoting ...

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