During the last two decades the study of European foreign policy has experienced remarkable growth, presumably reflecting a more significant international role of the European Union. The Union has significantly expanded its policy portfolio and though empty symbolic politics still exists, the Unions international relations have become more substantial and its foreign policy more focused. European foreign policy has become a dynamic policy area, being adapted to changing challenges and environments, such as the Arab Spring, new emerging economies/powers; the crisis of multilateralism and much more. The SAGE Handbook of European Foreign Policy, Two-Volume set, is a major reference work for Foreign Policy Programmes around the world. The Handbook is designed to be accessible to graduate and postgraduate students in a wide variety of disciplines across the humanities and social sciences. Both volumes are structured to address areas of critical concern to scholars at the cutting edge of all major dimensions of foreign policy. The volumes are composed of original chapters written specifically to the following themes: Research traditions and historical experience Theoretical perspectives EU actors State actors Societal actors The politics of European foreign policy Bilateral relations Relations with multilateral institutions Individual policies Transnational challenges The Handbook will be an essential reference for both advanced students and scholars.
Chapter 54: Europe–Africa Relations over Time: History, Geopolitics and New Political Challenges
Europe–Africa Relations over Time: History, Geopolitics and New Political Challenges
Europe's relations with the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries are shaped by a variety of historical and contemporary forces, reflecting the changing political, economic and geo-strategic contexts that have affected the two regions. Colonialism was decisive in constructing an unequal and exploitative relationship that would cast a long shadow over the post-colonial setting within which the individual ACP states addressed the challenges of independence, nation-state building, sovereignty and development. During the half century after the end of colonialism, however, ties between the European and African states would be reconstructed and renewed as European integration advanced and the evolving ...