During the last two decades the study of European foreign policy has experienced remarkable growth, presumably reflecting a more significant international role of the European Union. The Union has significantly expanded its policy portfolio and though empty symbolic politics still exists, the Union’s international relations have become more substantial and its foreign policy more focused. European foreign policy has become a dynamic policy area, being adapted to changing challenges and environments, such as the Arab Spring, new emerging economies/powers; the crisis of multilateralism and much more. The SAGE Handbook of European Foreign Policy, Two-Volume set, is a major reference work for Foreign Policy Programmes around the world. The Handbook is designed to be accessible to graduate and postgraduate students in a wide variety of disciplines across the humanities and social sciences. Both volumes are structured to address areas of critical concern to scholars at the cutting edge of all major dimensions of foreign policy. The volumes are composed of original chapters written specifically to the following themes: • Research traditions and historical experience • Theoretical perspectives• EU actors• State actors• Societal actors• The politics of European foreign policy• Bilateral relations• Relations with multilateral institutions• Individual policies• Transnational challenges The Handbook will be an essential reference for both advanced students and scholars.

EU Foreign Policy and the Middle East

EU foreign policy and the Middle East
Paola Rivetti Francesco Cavatorta

Introduction

Over the last two decades the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), including Iran and Turkey, have acquired considerable importance for the European Union (EU). As the process of deepening and enlarging made the Union's external relations more central to EU policy-making, the MENA region also went through a significant number of socio-economic and political changes that influenced the relations between the two. The rise of political Islam, the introduction of market oriented reforms, the resilience of authoritarianism and the periodic conflicts affecting some of the MENA states all contributed to raise the political interest of the EU policymaking ...

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