During the last two decades the study of European foreign policy has experienced remarkable growth, presumably reflecting a more significant international role of the European Union. The Union has significantly expanded its policy portfolio and though empty symbolic politics still exists, the Unions international relations have become more substantial and its foreign policy more focused. European foreign policy has become a dynamic policy area, being adapted to changing challenges and environments, such as the Arab Spring, new emerging economies/powers; the crisis of multilateralism and much more. The SAGE Handbook of European Foreign Policy, Two-Volume set, is a major reference work for Foreign Policy Programmes around the world. The Handbook is designed to be accessible to graduate and postgraduate students in a wide variety of disciplines across the humanities and social sciences. Both volumes are structured to address areas of critical concern to scholars at the cutting edge of all major dimensions of foreign policy. The volumes are composed of original chapters written specifically to the following themes: Research traditions and historical experience Theoretical perspectives EU actors State actors Societal actors The politics of European foreign policy Bilateral relations Relations with multilateral institutions Individual policies Transnational challenges The Handbook will be an essential reference for both advanced students and scholars.
Chapter 37: The Counter Forces of European Integration: Nationalism, Populism and EU Foreign Policy
The Counter Forces of European Integration: Nationalism, Populism and EU Foreign Policy
The widening and deepening of European integration since the mid-1980s has often been portrayed as a response to a rapidly changing environment that is posing challenges to the member states of the European Community. The end of the Cold War ushered in new feelings of insecurity, particularly in Central and Eastern Europe. Rapid changes in transportation and communication technologies, reinforced by a dominant neo-liberal ideology, strengthened economic and financial globalization. In addition, the 2000s witnessed challenges such as the fear of terrorism after 9/11, the influx of migrants and ...