During the last two decades the study of European foreign policy has experienced remarkable growth, presumably reflecting a more significant international role of the European Union. The Union has significantly expanded its policy portfolio and though empty symbolic politics still exists, the Unions international relations have become more substantial and its foreign policy more focused. European foreign policy has become a dynamic policy area, being adapted to changing challenges and environments, such as the Arab Spring, new emerging economies/powers; the crisis of multilateralism and much more. The SAGE Handbook of European Foreign Policy, Two-Volume set, is a major reference work for Foreign Policy Programmes around the world. The Handbook is designed to be accessible to graduate and postgraduate students in a wide variety of disciplines across the humanities and social sciences. Both volumes are structured to address areas of critical concern to scholars at the cutting edge of all major dimensions of foreign policy. The volumes are composed of original chapters written specifically to the following themes: Research traditions and historical experience Theoretical perspectives EU actors State actors Societal actors The politics of European foreign policy Bilateral relations Relations with multilateral institutions Individual policies Transnational challenges The Handbook will be an essential reference for both advanced students and scholars.
Chapter 32: Europe's Public Intellectuals
Europe's Public Intellectuals
The intellectual has been a prominent presence in public discussions of Europe's foreign policy since the end of the Second World War. European intellectuals were vocal in the division of Europe, joined in the protests at Europe's nuclear arming, deplored the ‘Americanisation’ of Europe's foreign policy and sought an independent role for Europe between the two blocs. But they played almost no role in the formulation of any of the key elements in European foreign policies, and indeed were cordoned off from any influence, a situation that lasted for most of the Cold War period. It was only after the initiation of glasnost in the Soviet Union in the late 1980s, and the ...