During the last two decades the study of European foreign policy has experienced remarkable growth, presumably reflecting a more significant international role of the European Union. The Union has significantly expanded its policy portfolio and though empty symbolic politics still exists, the Unions international relations have become more substantial and its foreign policy more focused. European foreign policy has become a dynamic policy area, being adapted to changing challenges and environments, such as the Arab Spring, new emerging economies/powers; the crisis of multilateralism and much more. The SAGE Handbook of European Foreign Policy, Two-Volume set, is a major reference work for Foreign Policy Programmes around the world. The Handbook is designed to be accessible to graduate and postgraduate students in a wide variety of disciplines across the humanities and social sciences. Both volumes are structured to address areas of critical concern to scholars at the cutting edge of all major dimensions of foreign policy. The volumes are composed of original chapters written specifically to the following themes: Research traditions and historical experience Theoretical perspectives EU actors State actors Societal actors The politics of European foreign policy Bilateral relations Relations with multilateral institutions Individual policies Transnational challenges The Handbook will be an essential reference for both advanced students and scholars.
Chapter 18: European Security Intelligence
European Security Intelligence
Ever since the 9/11 attack on the Twin Towers and Pentagon (2001), the bombings in Madrid (2004) and London (2005), the killings in Paris (2015) and Copenhagen (2015), and in the aftermath of the revelations made by the former National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden, national intelligence agencies have been expected not merely to be fit for purpose in the delivery of security to their respective nations, one of the core duties of all governments, but publicly accountable for any errors made. Errors in this context include providing governments with information that is known at the time to be grossly inaccurate, and breaking the laws governing intelligence-led activity that each nation will have ...