During the last two decades the study of European foreign policy has experienced remarkable growth, presumably reflecting a more significant international role of the European Union. The Union has significantly expanded its policy portfolio and though empty symbolic politics still exists, the Union’s international relations have become more substantial and its foreign policy more focused. European foreign policy has become a dynamic policy area, being adapted to changing challenges and environments, such as the Arab Spring, new emerging economies/powers; the crisis of multilateralism and much more. The SAGE Handbook of European Foreign Policy, Two-Volume set, is a major reference work for Foreign Policy Programmes around the world. The Handbook is designed to be accessible to graduate and postgraduate students in a wide variety of disciplines across the humanities and social sciences. Both volumes are structured to address areas of critical concern to scholars at the cutting edge of all major dimensions of foreign policy. The volumes are composed of original chapters written specifically to the following themes: • Research traditions and historical experience • Theoretical perspectives• EU actors• State actors• Societal actors• The politics of European foreign policy• Bilateral relations• Relations with multilateral institutions• Individual policies• Transnational challenges The Handbook will be an essential reference for both advanced students and scholars.

The Governance of European Defence

The governance of European defence
Per M. Norheim-Martinsen


The title of this chapter may, to some, come across as an oxymoron. While governance has emerged as a useful concept for approaching other areas of EU policy, security and defence have been kept firmly outside the orbit of the so-called governance turn in EU studies since, in this particular domain, states are seen to remain the dominant if not the only actors. At the same time, scholars have realized that European defence cooperation does go beyond mere intergovernmental bargaining, even though it falls short of supranational integration. The resulting academic debate has become stuck in the notion that the nation state can no longer provide security ...

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