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Chapter 5: Nicotine: The Pharmacokinetics of Nicotine and Cotinine
Nicotine, a natural ingredient in tobacco leaf, is the main tobacco alkaloid (about 95% of the total alkaloid content) and constitutes 1.5% by weight of commercial cigarette tobacco. There are many different types of tobacco product: 1) those which are rolled, combusted and smoked (e.g. cigarettes, bidis, kreteks), 2) those which are heated but not combusted (e.g. water pipes, hookah, narghile), 3) those which are not heated or combusted (e.g. ‘smokeless tobacco’ which is either consumed orally or nasally such as snuff, snus or betel quid, and 4) electronic cigarettes which deliver an aerosol containing nicotine but do not produce a combusted smoke (Benowitz, 2009).
Nicotine is a tertiary amine which ...