With contributions from leading international academics across the biological sciences, this handbook takes a critical look at the key contemporary issues and debates in the field. The 31 chapters are divided into four parts: Part I Determination of Substance Misuse Part II PK and PD in Relation to Patterns of Use Part III Detection and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Use Part IV Controversies and New Approaches This Handbook is an excellent reference text for the growing number of academics, students, scientists and practitioners in the drug and alcohol studies community, and will be a vital resource to the allied professions involved in work-place drug testing, clinical toxicology, and forensic science.

Chapter 5: Nicotine: The Pharmacokinetics of Nicotine and Cotinine

Nicotine: The Pharmacokinetics of Nicotine and Cotinine

Nicotine: the pharmacokinetics of nicotine and cotinine
Noorzurani Robson


Nicotine, a natural ingredient in tobacco leaf, is the main tobacco alkaloid (about 95% of the total alkaloid content) and constitutes 1.5% by weight of commercial cigarette tobacco. There are many different types of tobacco product: 1) those which are rolled, combusted and smoked (e.g. cigarettes, bidis, kreteks), 2) those which are heated but not combusted (e.g. water pipes, hookah, narghile), 3) those which are not heated or combusted (e.g. ‘smokeless tobacco’ which is either consumed orally or nasally such as snuff, snus or betel quid, and 4) electronic cigarettes which deliver an aerosol containing nicotine but do not produce a combusted smoke (Benowitz, 2009).

Nicotine is a tertiary amine which ...

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