With contributions from leading international academics across the biological sciences, this handbook takes a critical look at the key contemporary issues and debates in the field. The 31 chapters are divided into four parts: Part I Determination of Substance Misuse Part II PK and PD in Relation to Patterns of Use Part III Detection and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Use Part IV Controversies and New Approaches This Handbook is an excellent reference text for the growing number of academics, students, scientists and practitioners in the drug and alcohol studies community, and will be a vital resource to the allied professions involved in work-place drug testing, clinical toxicology, and forensic science.

Chapter 28: Emerging Tobacco Trends from the Arabian Cultures (Waterpipe and Dokha): Global Prevalence, Health Risks and Propensity for Abuse

Emerging Tobacco Trends from the Arabian Cultures (Waterpipe and Dokha): Global Prevalence, Health Risks and Propensity for Abuse

Emerging Tobacco Trends from the Arabian Cultures (Waterpipe and Dokha): Global Prevalence, Health Risks and Propensity for Abuse
Annie Crookes

Introduction

Tobacco use is a leading cause of disease globally (WHO, 2014). In recent decades, international health and education policies have had some success in informing the public about the risks of cigarette use and reducing rates of smoking. However, there is now a growing interest in alternative forms of tobacco (ATPs). This category includes bidis (small leaf rolled cigarettes) and kreteks (clove mixed cigarettes) from India as well the waterpipe (using flavoured tobacco inhaled through water) and dokha (herb mixed tobacco smoked through a small pipe) from the ...

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