With contributions from leading international academics across the biological sciences, this handbook takes a critical look at the key contemporary issues and debates in the field. The 31 chapters are divided into four parts: Part I Determination of Substance Misuse Part II PK and PD in Relation to Patterns of Use Part III Detection and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Use Part IV Controversies and New Approaches This Handbook is an excellent reference text for the growing number of academics, students, scientists and practitioners in the drug and alcohol studies community, and will be a vital resource to the allied professions involved in work-place drug testing, clinical toxicology, and forensic science.
Chapter 24: Intravenous Abuse of Methylphenidate
Intravenous Abuse of Methylphenidate
Pharmaceutical stimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH) are considered first-line treatment for symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). With growing awareness and understanding of ADHD among the public and the medical community, there has been a steady rise in the production and use of these medications worldwide in the last two decades. Much of the increase has been in the form of MPH in different formulations. The bulk of MPH use has been in the USA but other high prescribing countries include Canada, Norway, Netherlands, Israel and Iceland (INCB, 2012, Scheffler et al., 2007).
Since MPH shares pharmacological effects with substances of abuse, such as amphetamine and cocaine, concerns have been raised about its abuse ...