With contributions from leading international academics across the biological sciences, this handbook takes a critical look at the key contemporary issues and debates in the field. The 31 chapters are divided into four parts: Part I Determination of Substance Misuse Part II PK and PD in Relation to Patterns of Use Part III Detection and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Use Part IV Controversies and New Approaches This Handbook is an excellent reference text for the growing number of academics, students, scientists and practitioners in the drug and alcohol studies community, and will be a vital resource to the allied professions involved in work-place drug testing, clinical toxicology, and forensic science.
Chapter 19: Treatment of Opioid Dependence
Treatment of Opioid Dependence
Many drug treatment services remain dominated by substitute prescribing programmes for heroin (diacetylmorphine) dependent individuals. It was estimated in 2007 that there were 15.6 million users of illicit opioids worldwide (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2007). Figures are not diminishing and the 2015 World Drug Report of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC, 2015) estimates that a total of 246 million people – slightly over 5 per cent of those aged 15 to 64 years worldwide – used an illicit drug in 2013. Some 27 million people are problem drug users, almost half of whom are people who inject drugs (PWID).North America, Australia and most European countries have some ...