With contributions from leading international academics across the biological sciences, this handbook takes a critical look at the key contemporary issues and debates in the field. The 31 chapters are divided into four parts: Part I Determination of Substance Misuse Part II PK and PD in Relation to Patterns of Use Part III Detection and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Use Part IV Controversies and New Approaches This Handbook is an excellent reference text for the growing number of academics, students, scientists and practitioners in the drug and alcohol studies community, and will be a vital resource to the allied professions involved in work-place drug testing, clinical toxicology, and forensic science.
Chapter 15: Gamma-hydroxybutyric Acid and its Analogues: Pharmocokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
Gamma-hydroxybutyric Acid and its Analogues: Pharmocokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant. It occurs naturally in small amounts in the CNS (Bessman and Fishbein, 1963), where it exists as both a precursor and a metabolite of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (Snead and Gibson, 2005), the principal inhibitory CNS neurotransmitter; indeed, GHB itself is a neurotransmitter. GHB can also be ingested orally and in this form it can be purchased commercially and on the illicit market. As a recreational drug, it is used by many young people for its intoxicating effects. For these purposes it has the important characteristic of passing the blood–brain barrier, unlike GABA.
GHB and its analogues
GHB (Figure ...