With contributions from leading international academics across the biological sciences, this handbook takes a critical look at the key contemporary issues and debates in the field. The 31 chapters are divided into four parts: Part I Determination of Substance Misuse Part II PK and PD in Relation to Patterns of Use Part III Detection and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Use Part IV Controversies and New Approaches This Handbook is an excellent reference text for the growing number of academics, students, scientists and practitioners in the drug and alcohol studies community, and will be a vital resource to the allied professions involved in work-place drug testing, clinical toxicology, and forensic science.
Chapter 14: Khat, Mephedrone and MDPV: Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Parameters
Khat, Mephedrone and MDPV: Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Parameters
Background and history
Khat is the transliteration of an Arabic word that indicates the leaves and shoots of Catha edulis (Fig. 14.1). This is a plant of the Celastraceae family which is endemic in countries around the Red Sea and Eastern Africa. Its leaves have been chewed since ancient times, becoming part of cultural traditions (Fig. 14.2). The khat chewing habit is deeply rooted in African countries such as Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Kenya, and Tanzania and in the south-western countries of the Arabian Peninsula such as Yemen, which is the country with a major population of chewers. Studies generally report more use of the ...