With contributions from leading international academics across the biological sciences, this handbook takes a critical look at the key contemporary issues and debates in the field. The 31 chapters are divided into four parts: Part I Determination of Substance Misuse Part II PK and PD in Relation to Patterns of Use Part III Detection and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Use Part IV Controversies and New Approaches This Handbook is an excellent reference text for the growing number of academics, students, scientists and practitioners in the drug and alcohol studies community, and will be a vital resource to the allied professions involved in work-place drug testing, clinical toxicology, and forensic science.

Chapter 13: Synthetic Cannabinoids: The Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Spice and Other Synthetic Cannabinoids

Synthetic Cannabinoids: The Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Spice and Other Synthetic Cannabinoids

Synthetic Cannabinoids: The Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Spice and Other Synthetic Cannabinoids
Aarti GuptaDeepak Cyril D'Souza

Introduction

Synthetic cannabinoids (SC) have emerged over this past decade as drugs of abuse globally. While these products are marketed under different suggestive names, e.g., Spice, K2, Black Mamba, etc., for simplicity, we will refer to all products containing SCs as ‘Spice’ herein. Spice typically contains SCs that are sprayed onto an herbal substrate. Unlike delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive constituent of herbal cannabis which is a weak partial agonist of brain cannabinoid receptors (CBRs), SCs are potent full CBR agonists (Weissman, Milne et al. 1982; Castaneto, Gorelick et al. 2014).

Spice products are marketed under the guise of potpourri, ...

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