With contributions from leading international academics across the biological sciences, this handbook takes a critical look at the key contemporary issues and debates in the field. The 31 chapters are divided into four parts: Part I Determination of Substance Misuse Part II PK and PD in Relation to Patterns of Use Part III Detection and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Use Part IV Controversies and New Approaches This Handbook is an excellent reference text for the growing number of academics, students, scientists and practitioners in the drug and alcohol studies community, and will be a vital resource to the allied professions involved in work-place drug testing, clinical toxicology, and forensic science.
Chapter 12: Cannabis: The Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Recreational and Medicinal Cannabis
Cannabis: The Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Recreational and Medicinal Cannabis
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, was one of the first active molecules isolated from the cannabis plant (Gaoni and Mechoulam, 1964), and its molecular structure became the template for all similar molecules (cannabinoids) discovered thereafter. Molecules can also be classed as cannabinoids if they have similar behavioural or physiological effects as THC including ‘tetrad’ effects (so named owing to the presence of four distinctive behavioural phenotypes induced by THC) such as motor depression, catalepsy, analgesia and hypothermia (Fride et al., 2006). However, tetrad effects are not a pre-requisite for cannabinoids (e.g. the non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) does not ...