With contributions from leading international academics across the biological sciences, this handbook takes a critical look at the key contemporary issues and debates in the field. The 31 chapters are divided into four parts: Part I Determination of Substance Misuse Part II PK and PD in Relation to Patterns of Use Part III Detection and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Use Part IV Controversies and New Approaches This Handbook is an excellent reference text for the growing number of academics, students, scientists and practitioners in the drug and alcohol studies community, and will be a vital resource to the allied professions involved in work-place drug testing, clinical toxicology, and forensic science.
Chapter 10: Benzodiazepines: A Discussion of Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Effects
Benzodiazepines: A Discussion of Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Effects
Use and misuse of benzodiazepines
Benzodiazepines are available only on prescription in most major western countries. They are commonly prescribed for patients with disorders of anxiety or sleep. In the UK, dispensing of benzodiazepines decreased from 1991 to 2009 due mainly to a decrease in the dispensing of hypnotic benzodiazepines (Reed et al. 2012). Anxiolytic benzodiazepines did not show the same steady pattern of decline but total benzodiazepine dispensing decreased by 51.3% from 1980 to 2009 (Reed et al. 2012). The steady use of anxiolytic benzodiazepines may be because few alternative anxiolytic medications have yet been developed and although some antidepressants, in ...