With contributions from leading international academics across the biological sciences, this handbook takes a critical look at the key contemporary issues and debates in the field. The 31 chapters are divided into four parts: Part I Determination of Substance Misuse Part II PK and PD in Relation to Patterns of Use Part III Detection and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Use Part IV Controversies and New Approaches This Handbook is an excellent reference text for the growing number of academics, students, scientists and practitioners in the drug and alcohol studies community, and will be a vital resource to the allied professions involved in work-place drug testing, clinical toxicology, and forensic science.
Chapter 9: MDMA: Pharmacokinetics
MDMA pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is a synthetic derivative of amphetamine and one of the most abused recreational psychostimulant drugs in the world. Ecstasy tablets are illegally manufactured in clandestine laboratories and sold to the public for a profit (Lanzarotta, et al., 2011; Parrott, 2013; Karuppagounder, et al., 2014). Ecstasy is sold illegally as tablets of different sizes and colours. Usually tablets contain different kinds of markings and logos, from well-known trademarks to imaginative drawings. Less frequently ecstasy is sold in capsules and powder (Green et al., 2003).
Prevalence of ecstasy
According to the 2014 World Drug Report; ecstasy use has shown signs of a global decline (United Nations, 2014). However, an increase in the seizures of ...