With contributions from leading international academics across the biological sciences, this handbook takes a critical look at the key contemporary issues and debates in the field. The 31 chapters are divided into four parts: Part I Determination of Substance Misuse Part II PK and PD in Relation to Patterns of Use Part III Detection and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Use Part IV Controversies and New Approaches This Handbook is an excellent reference text for the growing number of academics, students, scientists and practitioners in the drug and alcohol studies community, and will be a vital resource to the allied professions involved in work-place drug testing, clinical toxicology, and forensic science.

Chapter 8: Amphetamine & Methamphetamine: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

Amphetamine & Methamphetamine: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

Amphetamine & Methamphetamine: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
Kim P. C. KuypersEef TheunissenJan Ramaekers

Introduction

The term amphetamines refers to a class of synthetic substances acting as stimulants of the central nervous system (CNS), including amphetamine (R,S-1-phenyl-2-propanamine), that can take different chemical forms such as l-amphetamine, d-amphetamine (Dexedrine), d,l-amphetamine (Benzedrine) and a mixture of amphetamine stereoisomer salts and inactive ingredients (Adderall), and other chemicals which share structural similarities e.g. methamphetamine (R,S-N-methyl-1-phenyl-2-propanamine; Desoxyn) (Kraemer and Maurer, 2002; Couper and Logan, 2004; Meyer and Quenzer, 2005; Fleckenstein et al., 2007). Therapeutically, amphetamine is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy and extreme obesity. Methamphetamine is rarely used in the treatment of ADHD and obesity (Couper and Logan, 2004; Fleckenstein et al., 2007).

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