With contributions from leading international academics across the biological sciences, this handbook takes a critical look at the key contemporary issues and debates in the field. The 31 chapters are divided into four parts: Part I Determination of Substance Misuse Part II PK and PD in Relation to Patterns of Use Part III Detection and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Use Part IV Controversies and New Approaches This Handbook is an excellent reference text for the growing number of academics, students, scientists and practitioners in the drug and alcohol studies community, and will be a vital resource to the allied professions involved in work-place drug testing, clinical toxicology, and forensic science.
Chapter 7: Cocaine: Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Addictive Potential
Cocaine: Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Addictive Potential
Cocaine is a well-known recreational drug, used mainly for its stimulant properties. Cocaine is the product of the leaves of the coca plant (Erythroxylon coca). Cocaine has highly addictive properties, and although cocaine is an illegal substance, its use is relatively common. the number of cocaine users worldwide is in the range of 14 million to 21 million (0.3–0.5% of the population aged 15–64 years). Cocaine has been used at least once in their lifetime by 4.3% of the general population (EMCDDA, 2011). Cocaine is mostly used in developed countries; the largest markets are North America, Europe and South America (Pomara et al. 2012). Cocaine, usually a white powder, is typically ...