The SAGE Handbook of Drug and Alcohol Studies


Torsten Kolind, Betsy Thom & Geoffrey Hunt

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    Editorial board

    Professor Kathy Aitchison

    Alberta Centennial Addiction and Mental Health Research Chair

    University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada

    Dr Franca Beccaria

    Eclectica (Comunicazione - Formazione – Ricerca)

    Torino: Università del Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy

    Professor Virginia Berridge

    Centre for History in Public Health, Faculty of Public Health and Policy

    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK

    Professor Harald Klingemann

    University of Applied Sciences

    Berner Fachhochschule/Haute école spécialisée bernoise, Switzerland

    Research Fellow Dr Kim Kuypers

    Faculty of Neuroscience and Psychology, Department of Neuropsychology and Psychopharmacology

    Maastricht University, Belgium

    Professor Karen Jo Laidler

    Department of Sociology

    University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

    Assistant Professor Paul Lemmens

    Department Health Education and Promotion

    University of Maastricht, The Netherlands

    Professor Susanne MacGregor

    Faculty of Public Health and Policy

    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK

    Senior Lecturer Dr Jane Marshall

    Addictions Division

    South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, UK

    Dr Jacek Moskalewicz

    Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology

    Warsaw, Poland

    Professor Robin Room

    Director, Centre for Alcohol Policy Research

    La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia

    Consultant Clinical Biochemist Roy Sherwood

    Clinical Biochemistry Department

    King’s College Hospital, UK

    Professor Pekka Sulkunen

    Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies

    University of Helsinki, Finland

    Assistant Professor Joris C. Verster

    Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology

    Utrecht University, The Netherlands

    Associate Professor Deborah Zador

    National Drug & Alcohol Research Centre

    University New South Wales, Australia

    List of Figures and Tables


    Notes on the Editors and Contributors

    The Editors

    Torsten Kolind is Associate Professor at the Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research, Aarhus University. He has a PhD in anthropology and has published widely on drug policy, drug use and drug treatment in prisons. He has taken part in and been principal investigator on several international research projects on drug and alcohol issues including focusses on prisons, youth, ethnicity and drug treatment. He is one of the Editors in Chief of the journal, Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy. He is co-study director of the European Master in Drug and Alcohol Studies.

    Betsy Thom is Professor of Health Policy and Head of the Drug and Alcohol Research Centre at Middlesex University, London. She is a social scientist and has focussed her work on alcohol and drug research, with a particular interest in policy and the policy process. She collaborates in a number of European research projects and acted as a consultant on evaluations of the EU Alcohol Strategy. She has published widely on a range of alcohol and drug issues and was Editor-In-Chief of Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy for 20 years.

    Geoffrey Hunt is a social and Cultural Anthropologist, who has had over 30 years' experience in planning, conducting and managing research in the field of drugs, alcohol and youth studies. Currently, Dr Hunt is Professor at the Centre for Alcohol and Drugs Research at Aarhus University, Denmark and Senior Research Scientist at the Institute for Scientific Analysis, in San Francisco. Dr Hunt is currently the Principal Investigator (PI) on NIH and NSF funded projects on gender and intoxication and also PI on a Danish Research Council project on the same topic. Dr Hunt has published widely in the field of substance use studies in many of the leading sociology, anthropology and criminology journals in the United States and the UK. His book publications include Youth Drugs and Nightlife (Routledge, 2010) and Drugs and Culture (Ashgate, 2011).

    The Contributors

    Carmen Aceijas graduated in Psychology in 1997, completed her PhD in Psychology with specialty in Health Psychology and Research Methods in 2005 and is a fellow of the Royal Society of Public Health. She started her career in Public Health in the Andalusian School of Public Health (Spain) until she moved to UK where she worked as full time researcher for Imperial College and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine until she became a Senior Lecturer and moved to Middlesex University as Senior Lecturer in Applied Public Health and programme leader for the MSc Applied Public Health. She has worked on numerous research studies on different aspects of addiction and has extensively published the findings from those studies in scientific journals. Her previous book, Assessing Evidence to improve Population Health and Wellbeing (2011), rapidly became a widely used resource for those at the beginning of their public health career.

    Elias Allara, Department of Translational Medicine, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy. Elias Allara is a medical doctor and specialist in public health medicine. He has worked with Professor Fabrizio Faggiano at the Università del Piemonte Orientale, Italy, on several national and international projects regarding prevention of risky behaviours such as substance misuse. Elias Allara is lead author of a large randomized controlled trial aiming to assess the effectiveness of a behaviour prevention intervention tackling four risky behaviours including alcohol misuse. He is co-author of a Cochrane systematic review on the effectiveness of mass-media campaigns for the prevention of illicit drug use and lead author of a related paper.

    Tamar Antin is a Research Scientist at the Institute for Scientific Analysis and the Prevention Research Center. She is also the Director of the Center for Critical Public Health. She holds a doctoral degree in public health from the University of California, Berkeley and a Master's degree in applied anthropology from the University of Maryland, College Park. Her research focuses on the lived experience of stigma. In particular, she and her research team are currently investigating to what extent tobacco-related stigma interacts with other stigmatizing social identity statuses to intensify oppression, particularly for Black young adults and sexual and gender minorities.

    Rebecca Askew is Lecturer in Criminology at Manchester Metropolitan University, UK. Her academic background spans sociology and criminology, with a broad research interest in illicit substance use. Rebecca is particularly interested in incorporating drug users' experiences and perspectives into policy and research. Her PhD thesis explored how otherwise conforming adults negotiate the criminality and deviance associated with their recreational drug use. Other projects have included novel psychoactive substance use in the UK and evaluations of drug treatment programmes.

    Angus Bancroft is a Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Edinburgh. He has written on darknet cryptomarkets, intoxication and society, women's alcohol use and pleasure and the impact of parental drug and alcohol problems on children.

    Franca Beccaria, PhD, is a Sociologist, partner in Eclectica, a research institute in Torino (Italy), contract professor for the European Masters on Drug and Alcohol Studies (EMDAS) programme at the Università del Piemonte Orientale in Novara and at the Università di Torino. Her main research interests are drinking cultures, drinking styles, young people and alcohol and drug consumption, health promotion and sociology of health. She has published numerous articles in national and international journals, and has authored, co-authored or edited several books about lifestyle and risky behaviours. The most recent book edited, Alcohol and Generations. Changes in Style and Changing Styles in Italy and Finland (Carocci, 2010). Alcol e giovani. Riflettere prima dell'uso (Alcohol and Youth. Think Before Using) was published in 2013 by Giunti Editore.

    Anders Bergmark is Professor at Stockholm University where he has directed the Addiction Research Group for 25 years. His main research areas are substance misuse, interventions against misuse (treatment, prevention), theoretical models regarding misuse aetiology and dynamics, conceptual analysis of key concepts in the addiction field, political doctrines with implications for addiction treatment (alcohol and drug policy, evidence-based practice). During the last 15 years, he has been engaged in both national and international discussions concerning the political and practical problems that have surrounded the attempts to develop an evidence-based practice for substance misuse problems

    Bagga Bjerge, PhD, is an Associate Professor at Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research, Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University. She is trained within anthropology and sociology. She has been involved in a variety of research project, for example, in-depth ethnographic field work amongst methadone users, multi-sited qualitative studies of bureaucratic processes regarding in treatment organizations and case studies of stakeholders in the addiction fields in different European countries.

    Jeanett Bj⊘nness is Assistant Professor at Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research, Aarhus University. She holds a PhD degree in anthropology from the Department of Anthropology and Ethnography, Aarhus University. Her research has focused on prostitution, social work, social policy, victimization, agency, gender, drugs, class and the relation between marginalized women and the social system. Presently her research explores non-medical use of prescription drugs in the Danish educational system in relation to wellbeing and risk. Furthermore, she is interested in the methodological and ethical dilemmas inherent in researching politicized and morally loaded fields as prostitution, drug- and medicine use, and more generally, the area of social marginalization.

    Caral Brown, PhD, is an early career Research Fellow at Oxford Brookes University. Her background is in Sociology and she has been involved in a range of research projects, all with a focus on addiction and substance use. These include exploring the opinions and experiences of substance users who live in homeless hostels, evaluating a school based drug education programme, exploring the use of online recovery in homeless hostels, and researching social networks and social capital among hostel residents.

    Rebecca Brown recently completed her PhD in Gender and Cultural Studies at The University of Sydney. Her thesis, A Girls' Night Out; Gender, Subjectivity, Pleasure, explores young British and Australian women's relationship to alcohol. Her broader research interests include women's relationship to femininity, class and post-feminism.

    Henry H. Brownstein is the Associate Dean for Research and Professor in the Wilder School of Government and Public Affairs at Virginia Commonwealth University. Previous positions include Senior Vice President and Director of the NORC Division on Substance Abuse, Mental Health and Criminal Justice Studies, Director of the Drugs and Crime Research Division and Executive Director of the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) programme at the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), and Principal Investigator at Narcotic and Drug Research, Inc. (NDRI). For the past 30 years, he has been studying illicit drugs and drug markets, violence and violent crime and qualitative research methods. He earned his PhD in sociology at Temple University in 1977.

    Shane Butler is Associate Professor at the School of Social Work and Social Policy, Trinity College Dublin, where his main teaching and research activities are focused on mental health and addictions. Prior to working in TCD, he worked as a mental health social worker with the Eastern Health Board. He is the author of Alcohol, Drugs and Health Promotion in Modern Ireland (Institute of Public Administration, 2002) and Benign Anarchy: Alcoholics Anonymous in Ireland (Irish Academic Press, 2010). He is a Fellow of Trinity College Dublin.

    Glenda Daniels, founder of the Oxford User Team, UK. The Oxford User Team is a service user group that promotes social inclusion, provide opportunities for people who are overcoming drug and alcohol issues and advocate for local drug/service users to gain evidence based, humane drug and alcohol treatment.

    Cameron Duff is Vice Chancellor's Senior Research Fellow in the School of Management at RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia. Duff's research investigates complex health and social problems in urban settings, drawing from a range of contemporary social theorists including Gilles Deleuze, Bruno Latour and Michel Foucault. His recent work explores the relationship between health, place and social context with a focus on substance use, mental illness and housing insecurity in youth populations. Duff has developed these interests in empirical studies in Canada and Australia employing qualitative and ethnographic designs. Duff's first book, Assemblages of Health, was recently published by Springer.

    Karen Duke, PhD, is Associate Professor at Middlesex University, UK. She is a criminologist and policy analyst specialising in research on the development of drugs and alcohol policy and the interfaces with the criminal justice system. She has published articles, chapters and official reports in this area. She is one of the Editors in Chief of the journal, Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy and the author of the book, Drugs, Prisons and Policy-making (Palgrave MacMillan). She has over 20 years of experience conducting research and evaluations. She has conducted drugs related research and consultancy for the Home Office, Department of Health, the former Central Drugs Co-ordination Unit (Cabinet Office) and the Royal Society for the Arts. She is currently researching stakeholders in the addiction fields within the EU ALICE RAP research programme (FP7 funded).

    Elizabeth Ettorre is an internationally known Feminist Sociologist and has written in the areas of substance misuse, genetics, reproduction and autoethnography. She is Emerita Professor of Sociology, University of Liverpool, Honorary Professor, Aarhuus University, Denmark. Besides publishing in a number of international peer reviewed journals, she has written 10 books and her most recent scholarly work includes Gendering Addiction: The Politics of Drug Treatment in a Neurochemical World (with Nancy Campbell) and Health, Culture & Society (forthcoming).

    Fabrizio Faggiano is Associate Professor of Public Health and Evidence based medicine at the Università del Piemonte Orientale (Novara, Italy). His main research field is the evaluation of prevention interventions, especially in the field of substance abuse, and in the last few years, he has developed research aimed at ensuring effectiveness to public health interventions. Since 1998, he has been a member of the Board of the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Review group and carried out several systematic reviews on prevention and treatment of drug abuse. From 2008, he is the Director of the European Masters in Drugs and Alcohol Studies (EMDAS), carried out with the University of Aarhus (Denmark).

    Marica Ferri is currently Head of the Sector: Best Practice, knowledge exchange and economic issues at the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) and is responsible for the Scientific Program of the European Drugs Summer School. Since 1994, she has been working as a researcher and methodologist in the field of drug addiction and other medical disciplines. She coordinated the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol group for five years (1999–2004) and following this, she acted as a methodologist in the development of several guidelines at national and regional level. She is author of several systematic reviews and meta-analysis and is interested in implementation strategies.

    Vibeke Asmussen Frank, PhD, Anthropologist, is the director of Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research, Aarhus University, Denmark and Professor in Social Science Alcohol and Drug Research. Her research is mainly based on qualitative research. She has been involved in the management and conduction of a wide range of national and international research projects. Current projects focus on young people, alcohol, gender and intoxication and non-medical use of prescription drugs. She has written extensively within the field of social science alcohol and drug research, including editing several books. Her articles have appeared in scholarly books and journals, for example, Addiction, Social Science and Medicine and International Journal of Drug Policy.

    Mark Hailwood is an Associate Research Fellow at the University of Exeter. His research focuses on the history of the alehouse in England, 1550 to 1700, in particular on government attempts to regulate the institution and on the cultural values associated with drinking by its patrons. These are the subjects of his book Alehouses and Good Fellowship in Early Modern England. He has also published on the relationship between alehouses and political culture in early modern England, popular understandings of the effects of alcohol in the seventeenth century, and the relationship between drinking and both occupational and class based identities. He is also a co-convenor of an interdisciplinary alcohol research network: the Drinking Studies Network.

    Jennifer Harris, BA Hons, MSc, PsychD, is a Clinical Psychologist in addictions in South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust. She is also a fully trained EMDR therapist with a particular interest in trauma and as well as Yoga Therapy and Mindfulness. Before training as a psychologist she completed her MSc in Health Psychology and worked at the National Addiction Centre on studies investigating alcohol outcomes, the acceptability of Twelve Step meetings and attitudes towards cigarette smoking among drug and alcohol users. She is co-editor of Principles and Practice of Groupwork in Addictions (2011) London: Routledge.

    Clare Herrick is a Reader in Human Geography in the Department of Geography, King's College London. Her research follows two strands: (i) the intersections between risk behaviours such as eating, drinking and exercise and urban governance in cities and its relationship to (ii) critical global health studies. She has conducted extensive fieldwork in a number of cities – Austin, Texas, London, Addis Ababa, Cape Town and Gaborone – in research funded by the British Academy, ESRC-DFID and the Wellcome Trust. She is the author of the 2011 monograph Governing Consumption: Sensible Citizens, behaviour and the City (Policy Press).

    Morten Hesse is Associate Professor at the Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research, School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University. His research focuses on substance use disorder, psychopathology and treatment services. He has published extensively on the treatment of patients with substance use disorders, comorbid personality disorders, schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. In addition, he has published a number of papers on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, biomarkers of alcohol problems, as well as a number of systematic reviews on treatment for patients with substance use disorders. He is the section editor for Substance-related disorders, addiction and impulse control in BMC Psychiatry and is on the editorial board of Addictive Behaviors.

    Robert Hill, PhD, PsychD, is a Consultant Clinical Psychologist in addictions at the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust. He has a particular interest in philosophy and holds an MA in Modern European Philosophy. He has previously worked as a Senior Lecturer and Research Fellow. His most recent publications are Hill, R.G and Harris, J. (2011) (eds) Principles and Practice of Groupwork in Addictions. London: Routledge and Mitcheson, L., Maslin,J., Meynon, T., Morrisson, T., Hill, R. and Wanigaratne, S. (2010). Applied Cognitive and Behavioural Approaches to the Treatment of Addiction: A practical treatment guide. London: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Sarah Holloway is Professor of Human Geography at Loughborough University, UK. She is a social and cultural geographer, with twin interests in ‘Geographies of Children, Youth and Families’ and ‘Geographies of Social Difference’, key themes that have shaped her engagement with alcohol research. She is an Academician of the Social Sciences, a previous Philip Leverhulme Prize winner and a British Academy Mid-Career Fellow and a recipient of funding from RCUK, major charities and government sources.

    Esben Houborg, PhD, is an Associate Professor at Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research, Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University. He is trained in public administration and sociology. His main areas of research are drug policy in a historical and contemporary perspective, criminological research particularly concerning law enforcement, the relationship between science and politics in policy making and policy implementation and urban sociology in relation to drugs.

    Lena Hübner is Senior Lecturer at Stockholm University and has been a member of the Addiction Research Group since the beginning of the 2000s. Her main areas are substance misuse, especially interventions against misuse within the Swedish compulsory care system, and public opinion on alcohol and drugs and the Swedish policies concerning alcohol and drugs. Recently, her research interests have been directed towards the Swedish social services' agencies handling of substance misusers, in light of recurrent demands to develop evidence-based practice.

    Caitlin Hughes, PhD, is a Criminologist and Senior Research Fellow at the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre. She works as part of the multi-disciplinary Drug Policy Modelling Program (DPMP) which seeks to improve Australian drug policy by identifying what works, translating research evidence and engaging directly with policy makers. Dr Hughes' prime focus is improving understanding of the effects of different legislative regimes and law enforcement approaches and the role of law enforcement relative to other aspects of drug policy. Dr Hughes' research is undertaken in collaboration with Australian policy makers, including Health and Police Departments.

    Phillip Hull worked as a Research Officer with DPMP (2013 to 2104) on the Review of Drug and Alcohol Prevention and Treatment Services. He has 14 years of experience in the alcohol and drug and tobacco control sectors as a counsellor, project officer, trainer and manager. He is a former clinical manager of NSW Alcohol and Drug Information Service (ADIS) and NSW Quitline.

    Mark Jayne is Professor of Human Geography at the Cardiff University, UK. He is a social and cultural geographer whose research interests include consumption, the urban order, city cultures and cultural economy. Mark has published around 75 journal articles, book chapters and official reports and has undertaken empirical research in the UK, Ireland, Slovakia, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Australia, USA and China. Mark is author of Cities and Consumption (Routledge, 2005), co-author of Alcohol, Drinking, Drunkenness: (Dis)Orderly Spaces (Ashgate, 2011) and Childhood, Family, Alcohol (Ashgate, 2016). Mark is also co-editor of City of Quarters: Urban Villages in the Contemporary City (Ashgate, 2004), Small Cities: Urban Experience Beyond the Metropolis (Routledge, 2006), Urban Theory Beyond the West: A World of Cities (Routledge, 2012) and Urban Theory: New Critical Perspectives (Routledge, 2016).

    Helen Keane is an Associate Professor in the School of Sociology at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. Her research focuses on drug and alcohol use, including pharmaceutical, recreational and illicit drugs (and the relationships between these categories and forms of use). She has a particular interest in concepts of addiction. She is the co-author of Habits: Remaking Addiction (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014) with Suzanne Fraser and David Moore. This book examines addiction in an era of neuroscience and expanding pathologies of compulsive consumption and builds on her 2002 work What's Wrong with Addiction? (New York University Press, 2002).

    Harald Klingemann, who lives in Warsaw, studied at Cologne University (Germany), where he received the degree of Doctor of Economics and Social Science. He has taught at the University of Bonn, where he was a Senior Researcher in criminology, and has been Research Director at the Swiss Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Drug Problems and the Swiss consortium for alcohol treatment research. At present, he is a research professor at Bern University of the Arts in communication design. His main research interests include the Sociology of Time, the cross cultural analysis of treatment systems and the natural history of addiction careers, for which he received an honorary doctorate from Stockholm University in 2003. Together with G. Hunt and J.-P. Takala he coordinated, from 1990 to 1998, the International Studies in the Development of Alcohol and Drug Treatment Systems (ISDATS and ISDRUTS).

    Karen Joe Laidler is a Professor of Sociology and Director of the Centre for Criminology at the University of Hong Kong. Her current research focuses on drugs, sex work, youth gangs and women's imprisonment. As a native San Franciscan, she has been involved in criminological research since the 1980s, working with several non-profit organizations and government agencies in Northern California. She moved to Hong Kong in the 1990s and has witnessed the development of the city's drug market over the past two decades. Her recent projects include a study on social supply and drug use, and parallel trading between Hong Kong and mainland China and its implications for identity politics.

    Philip Lalander has written books and scientific articles about phenomenon such as youth culture, ethnicity, alcohol, heroin, gambling, criminality and exercise of power and processes of stigmatization in relation to people who are seen as strange and inferior in society. Through ethnographic studies, including participant observation and interviews, he develops an understanding for the life of other people and how they navigate in everyday life. He is the author of Hooked on Heroin: Drugs and Drifters in a Globalized World (Oxford/New York: Berg Publishers, 2003) and Respekt: Gatukultur, ny etnicitet och droger (Respect: Street Culture, New Ethnicity and Illicit Drugs. Stockholm: Liber). The last years he has directed extra focus in understanding the consequences of segregation and social injustice and to study how hidden dimensions of power can be understood, discussed and be made visible. He is the head of research at the Department of Social Work, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.

    Lisa Maher is a Program Head at the Kirby Institute for Infection and Immunity, Professor in the Faculty of Medicine at UNSW Australia and an Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Senior Research Fellow. She leads an internationally recognized programme of research focusing on innovative approaches to the prevention of infectious disease in vulnerable populations. Her research is based on effective and sustained engagement with people who use drugs, female sex workers, men who have sex with men, marginalized youth and Indigenous people, in North America, South East Asia, Australia and the Pacific. In 2015, she was awarded the Order of Australia for significant services to medicine in the field of epidemiology.

    Paula Mayock is Assistant Professor at the School of Social Work and Social Policy, Trinity College Dublin, where she is Course Director of the Masters in Applied Social Research. Her research focuses primarily on the lives and experiences of marginalized youth, covering areas such as homelessness, drug use and drug problems. Paula is a NIDA (National Institute on Drug Abuse) INVEST Post-Doctoral Fellow (2006 to 2007) and an IRC (Irish Research Council) Research Fellow (2009 to 2010). She is the founder and Co-Director of the Women's Homelessness in Europe Network (WHEN), which aims to foster international collaborative research on gender dimensions of homelessness. Paula is the author of numerous articles, chapters and research reports and is Assistant Editor to the international journal, Addiction.

    Susanne MacGregor is Honorary Professor of Social Policy at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London, attached to the Centre for History in Public Health. She is also Professor Emerita at Middlesex University London, attached to the Drug and Alcohol Research Centre. From 2000 to 2009, she was Programme Coordinator for the UK Department of Health Drug Misuse Research Initiative, which involved 24 projects focusing on issues such as treatment, comorbidity, service organization and parental substance use. She edited a book based on some of this work Responding to Drug Misuse: Research and Policy Priorities in Health and Social Care (Routledge, 2010). She was an Associate Editor of the International Journal of Drug Policy to July 2015 and serves on the international advisory board of Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy. She is a Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences and a member of an ACMD Working Group on Older Drug Users.

    Fiona Measham was appointed Professor of Criminology at Durham University in 2013. Fiona has conducted research for over two decades exploring changing trends in legal and illegal drugs, the night time economy and the socio-cultural context to consumption; new psychoactive substances and broader policy implications. Fiona was appointed to the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs in 2009: currently, she is Chair of the ACMD Polysubstance Use Working Group and Mephedrone review sub-group and sits on the new psychoactive substances standing committee and NPS Watch List sub-group. Fiona was appointed to the Home Office Ministerial Expert Panel on New Psychoactive Substances in 2014 and Public Health England's Drug Treatment Expert Reference Group in 2015.

    Richard Midford is Professor of Health in Education, in a joint appointment between Charles Darwin University and the Menzies School of Health Research. Richard also holds an adjunct appointment at the National Drug Research Institute (NDRI). His academic research focuses on social and emotional wellbeing, on how alcohol and other drug harm prevention programmes can be developed in partnership with local communities, prevention of alcohol and other drug harm in workplace settings and in the development of health programmes in schools. He has worked as a consultant to a number of industry groups, government departments and international organizations, including WHO, and he has sat on numerous boards and committees. He has published over 100 journal articles, monographs, books and book chapters on his work. The Drug Education in Victorian Schools (DEVS) intervention research project, of which he was the grant holder, received the 2012 Australian National Drug and Alcohol Award for excellence in prevention and community education.

    Jacek Moskalewicz, PhD, works as a Head of the Department of Studies on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence at the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology in Warsaw, Poland. Sociologist, for over 30 years involved in alcohol and drug research as well as in psychiatric studies, including epidemiology, policy-oriented studies, action research and social history. Member of the World Health Organization experts' advisory panel on drug dependence and alcohol problems. Consultant or technical adviser to international organizations including WHO, EMCDDA and UNODC. Deputy-chairman of the Science Group of the Alcohol and Health Forum at the European Commission (2008-2015). Recipient of Jellinek Memorial Award (2001) and Chevalier Cross of Polonia Restituta (2004). Editor-in-Chief of a quarterly journal Alkoholizm i Narkomania/Alcoholism and Drug Addiction, member of advisory boards of Addiction, European Addiction Research, Journal of Substance Use, Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy.

    Anna Nelson began her career in the alcohol and other drug sector in New Zealand in 1996 when she worked as a dual diagnosis social worker with the Salvation Army Bridge Programme. In 2000, she graduated as a Master of Social Work with Honours from Massey University in New Zealand having completed a thesis on effective interventions with substance using adolescents in Aotearoa New Zealand. Since this time, she has worked in a variety of addiction settings including in outpatient and residential settings and in prisons, as well as in education throughout New Zealand and in London. She is currently the Programme Manager at Matua Rak– i New Zealand's National Addiction Workforce Development Centre, supporting workforce development initiatives that build capability and capacity for the specialist addiction sector and other health and social care organizations. Her other publications include the book Social Work with Substance Users (2012).

    Russell Newcombe has been a Researcher, Lecturer, Trainer and Consultant on drug use and drug services for 32 years. In 2010, he received the National Rolleston Award from Harm Reduction International for outstanding contributions to reducing drug-related harm. Since 2010, Russell has been running 3D Research, based in Liverpool, and specializing in research on new drugs (NPS) and harm reduction. His books include The Reduction of Drug-Related Harm (co-editor 1992) and ‘Tripology’ (2004).

    James Nicholls is Director of research and Policy Development at Alcohol Research UK and Honorary Senior Lecture in the Centre for History in Public Health at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

    Anette S⊘gaard Nielsen, PhD, is Associate Professor at the Unit of Clinical Alcohol Research, Clinical Institute, Faculty of Health, University of Southern Denmark. Professionally, she has concentrated on the implementation of evidence based treatment methods (in particular motivational interviewing) and continuous quality assurance in operating alcohol treatment organizations. Her research interests include the matching hypothesis in treatment planning, patient perceptions and how to prevent premature drop out of treatment. She is currently the director of the RESCueH studies, which is a series of five randomized controlled trials in the field of clinical alcohol research.

    Isidore Silas Obot is a Professor in the Department of Psychology, University of Uyo, Nigeria. Prior to this he was Professor of Public Health and Chair, Department of Behavioral Sciences, Morgan State School of Public Health in Baltimore, MD, USA. He also worked as a Scientist in the Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, World Health Organization, Geneva and at the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health. Obot is the author of many papers on drug and alcohol epidemiology and policy, Editor-in-Chief of the African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies and Director of the non-profit Centre for Research and Information on Substance Abuse (CRISA) devoted to research on drugs in Africa. Obot consults for many organizations on drug-related issues in Africa and serves as a member of several committees and commissions on drugs and health. He received a PhD in psychology from Howard University, Washington, DC and a Master of Public Health (MPH) degree from the Harvard School of Public Health.

    J. Bryan Page, PhD, is Professor in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Miami, with secondary appointments in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and the Department of Sociology. He has engaged in anthropological study of street-based drug use in many different settings during the last four decades. His studies have ranged from examination of long-term marijuana use to poly-drug use among Native Americans (Seminole Tribe) Cuban Americans and African Americans, as well as Spanish heroin users. These studies involved productive collaborations with diverse disciplines, including molecular biology, virology, immunology, ophthalmology, internal medicine, psychology and psychiatry. Each of his studies begins by establishing a perspective on the use of drugs in the natural habitat of the user. From this level of understanding, he builds layers of perspectives and parameters to derive conclusions beyond the reach of a single discipline.

    Franco Prina, Sociologist, PhD in Sociology of Law. Full Professor of Sociology of Law and Sociology of Deviance in the Department of Cultures, Politics and Society, Università di Torino. His main research interests are: theories of sociology of deviance, penal and social control policies, juvenile delinquency and functions of juvenile prisons, prostitution and connection with trafficking in human beings, young people and alcohol, legislation and social policies on drugs and alcohol. He has published numerous articles in national and international journals. His books include: Il bere giovane. Saggi su giovani e alcol (1997); Devianza e politiche di controllo (2003); I cambiamenti nei consumi di bevande alcoliche in Italia (2006), Youth and Alcohol: Consumption, Abuse and Policies. (2010), Consumo di droghe e sanzioni amministrative (2011).

    Kane Race is Associate Professor of Gender and Cultural Studies at the University of Sydney. His work has explored embodied engagements with medicine across various different contexts and cultures of consumption: HIV/AIDS, sexual practice, drug use (both licit and illicit), and more recently, markets in bottled water. He is the author of Pleasure Consuming Medicine: The Queer Politics of Drugs (Duke University Press, 2009) and (with Gay Hawkins and Emily Potter), Plastic Water: The Social and Material Life of Bottled Water (MIT Press, 2015). He is currently investigating the emergence of new sexual and drug practices among gay men in the digital context.

    Alison Ritter, BA (Hons), MA (Clin Psych), PhD, is the Professor Director of the Drug Policy Modelling Program (DPMP) at the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre (NDARC) at the University of New South Wales. She is an NHMRC Senior Research Fellow leading a multi-disciplinary programme of research on drug policy. She is the immediate past President of the International Society for the Study of Drug Policy, Vice-President of the Alcohol and Drug Council of Australia and an Editor for a number of journals, including Drug and Alcohol Review and the International Journal of Drug Policy. Professor Ritter has an extensive research grant track record and has published widely in the field.

    Bill Sanders, PhD, is Professor of Criminal Justice at California State University, Los Angeles. He is a sociologist who has conducted qualitative research on high-risk behaviours among at risk youth in London, New York and Los Angeles. Dr Sanders has published about substance use, violence, crime and unsafe sexual behaviours, including HIV/HCV risk among young offenders, gang members, injection drug users and homeless youth. He has also published on drug selling, club drug use, prescription drug misuse, gang intervention and diversion, qualitative research methods and on the intersections of criminal justice and public health. His latest book, Gangs: An Introduction (2016), is published by Oxford University Press.

    Anthony Shakeshaft is Professor and Deputy Director at the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre (NDARC), based at the University of NSW (UNSW Australia). He was appointed to the Council of Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) for the 2012 to 2015 triennium, which is Australia's leading expert body for administering health and medical research grants, developing health advice for consumers, professionals and government and providing guidelines for health care and research ethics. He has held conjoint appointments and visiting research fellow positions at universities in Australia, the UK, Canada, Italy and The Netherlands. His research has been widely published (more than 140 publications) and he is regularly sought to present his work internationally and nationally. His principal research interest is the development and evaluation of interventions that are embedded into the routine delivery of health and other services. He is interested in increasing the capacity of communities and services to conduct high-quality evaluations of their own strategies and in developing more effective models of integrating research into practice. His research has examined the cost-effectiveness of interventions implemented in a range of services (e.g. primary care, community counselling, emergency departments, hospitals, Indigenous Medical Services, non-government organizations), across defined populations (mainstream, Indigenous and disadvantaged communities) and targeting multiple harms (alcohol, illicit drug use, psychological stress, resilience, unnecessary blood transfusions). Most recently, he led the largest whole-of-community cluster randomized controlled trial ever undertaken internationally, the Alcohol Action in Rural Communities (AARC) trial.

    Merrill Singer, PhD, a Medical and Cultural Anthropologist, is a professor in the departments of Anthropology and Community Medicine and a Senior Research Scientist at the Center for Health, Intervention and Prevention at the University of Connecticut. Additionally, he is affiliated with the Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS at Yale University. The central issue in his work is the social origins of health inequality. Over his career, his research and writing have addressed HIV/AIDS in highly vulnerable and disadvantaged populations, illicit drug use and drinking behaviour, community and structural violence and the political ecology of health including the impacts of climate change. His current drug-related research focuses on assessment of harm reduction with injection drug users in Kabul, Afghanistan. Dr Singer has published over 265 articles and book chapters and has authored or edited 29 books. He is a recipient of the Rudolph Virchow Professional Prize, the George Foster Memorial Award for Practicing Anthropology, the AIDS and Anthropology Paper Prize, the Prize for Distinguished Achievement in the Critical Study of North America, the Solon T. Kimball Award for Public and Applied Anthropology from the American Anthropological Association and the AIDS and Anthropology Research Group's Distinguished Service Award.

    Jessica Storbjörk, Associate Professor and Senior Lecturer at the Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD), Stockholm University, received her degree of Doctor of Sociology in 2008. She has held research positions at SoRAD and taught at Stockholm University since 2000. She is the coordinator of a Swedish national research network (Alcohol and Drug Research within Social Sciences), arranging annual conferences. Her research has focused on substance users in treatment, often from a client perspective, and includes: barriers and paths to treatment; living situation and social marginalization; treatment experiences and satisfaction; coercion and social control; service user involvement; and treatment outcomes and mortality. Recent interests include cross cultural comparisons of treatment systems, organizational changes and New Public Management in health, welfare and addiction treatment systems.

    Heino Stöver is Professor of Social Scientific Addiction Research at the University of Applied Sciences in Frankfurt/ Germany, Faculty of Health and Social Work and director of the ‘Institute of Addiction Research of the University of Applied Sciences in Frankfurt am Main’. His main fields of expertise are health promotion for vulnerable and marginalized groups, drug services, prisons and related health issues (especially HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C, drug dependence and gender issues). His has worked as a consultant for the European Commission, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), WHO, European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and Open Society Institute (OSI) in various contexts. He has published several articles in peer reviewed international journals and books on preventing and treating infectious diseases adequately (HIV/AIDS, hepatitis, STIs and TB), opioid substitution programmes (including the provision of heroin) in the community and in prisons and general health care issues in prisons. He is co-founder of the International Journal of Prisoner Health.

    Thomas Thurnell-Read is Lecturer in Cultural Sociology at Loughborough University, UK. His work explores identity and, in particular, masculinity in relation to leisure and consumption practices. His research interests include the sociology of the body and the sociological study of alcohol and drinking cultures. He is a Convenor of the British Sociological Association Alcohol Study group and is editor of Drinking Dilemmas: Space, Culture and Identity, published by Routledge in 2015.

    Birgitte Thylstrup is Associate Professor at the Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research, School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University. Her main research interests are treatment research, the evaluation of treatment services and their development, user perspectives and treatment satisfaction, psychopathology and mental illness, criminal lifestyle and behaviour. Currently, she is engaged in a randomized effect study on outpatient treatment for substance users with comorbid antisocial behaviour. She is on the editorial board for Substance-related disorders, addiction and impulse control in BMC Psychiatry.

    Gill Valentine is Professor of Human Geography and Pro-Vice Chancellor for Social Sciences at the University of Sheffield, UK. Gill has secured over £4m of research funding, published 15 books, nearly 200 journal articles and book chapters, 10 official reports and supervised over 20 PhD students. Gill was Co-founder and co-editor of Social and Cultural Geography, as well as Co-editor of Gender, Place and Culture.

    Łukasz Wieczorek, PhD, is an Assistant Professor at the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland. He is interested in alcohol and drug research, especially alcohol policy studies, epidemiology of addiction, stigmatization of alcohol and drug dependents and alcohol and drug treatment systems. Recently engaged in a study on availability of treatment for people with gambling disorder. He is a member of the Polish Society on Addiction Research.

    Lisa Williams is Lecturer in Criminology at the Centre for Criminology and Criminal Justice, School of Law, University of Manchester, UK. For over a decade she has undertaken research on both recreational and dependent forms of drug taking. Her recent research has focussed upon recreational drug journeys during the life course, exploring onset, stability, change and desistance. In particular, she is interested in how and why recreational drug use persists into adulthood. Methodologically, her research employs a longitudinal mixed methods approach.

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