This Handbook presents a comprehensive and contemporary compendium of the field of cross-cultural management (CCM). In recognition of current trends regarding migration, political ethnocentrisms and increasing nationalism, the chapters in this volume not only cover the traditional domains of CCM such as expatriation, global (virtual) teamwork and leadership, but also examine emerging topics such as bi/multi-culturalism, migration, religion and more, all considered from a global perspective. The result is a Handbook that acknowledges and builds on a variety of research traditions (from mainstream to critical), updates existing knowledge in relation to current challenges, and sets the direction for future research and developments, making this an invaluable resource for researchers in the field, and across related areas of international business, management, and intercultural relations. Part 1: Multiple Research Paradigms for the Study of Culture; Part 2: Research Methods in Cross-Cultural Management; Part 3: Cross-Cultural Management and Intersecting Fields of Study; Part 4: Individuals and Teams in Cross-Cultural Management; Part 5: Global mobility and Cross-Cultural Management; Part 6: Developing Intercultural Competence.
Chapter 8: Ethnography and Cross-Cultural Management
Ethnography and Cross-Cultural Management
Ethnographic research originates from anthropology. In cross-cultural management (CCM), it is motivated by the question of outlining and analysing the lived experience of people in, and/or affected by, cross-cultural organizational and/or wider socio-cultural developments (Schwartzman, 1993). Ethnography in its original anthropological sense involves much more than a mere research method. Rather, it is a ‘frame of mind’ from which to proceed (Czarniawska, 1998: 19), a methodology for research and analysis (Spradley, 1980) and a way of writing (van Maanen, 1988). It rests firmly on the idea that researchers immerse themselves into lived culture and reflect upon this experience via a constant and circular inductive–deductive process ...