The SAGE Guide to Educational Leadership and Management allows readers to gain knowledge of educational management in practice while providing insights into challenges facing educational leaders and the strategies, skills, and techniques needed to enhance administrative performance. This guide emphasizes the important skills that effective leaders must develop and refine, including communication, developing teams, coaching and motivating, and managing time and priorities. While being brief, simply written, and a highly practical overview for individuals who are new to this field, this reference guide will combine practice and research, indicate current issues and directions, and choices that need to be made. • 30 brief, signed chapters are organized in 10 thematic parts in one volume available in a choice of electronic or print formats designed to enable quick access to basic information. • Selective boxes enrich and support the narrative chapters with case examples of effective leadership in action. • Chapters conclude with bibliographic endnotes and references to further readings to guide students to more in-depth presentations in other published sources. • Back matter includes an annotated listing of organizations, associations, and journals focused on educational leadership and administration and a detailed index. This reference guide will serve as a vital source of knowledge to any students pursuing an education degree as well as for individuals interested in the subject matter that do not have a strong foundation of the topic.
Chapter 11: Achievement Gaps: Causes, False Promises, and Bogus Reforms
Achievement Gaps: Causes, False Promises, and Bogus Reforms
In his speeches about helping people and regions to prosper, President John F. Kennedy liked to use the hopeful metaphor, “A rising tide lifts all boats.” It merged ideas of equity and growth into a singular assurance that strategic thinking could promote upward mobility for all. For Americans, even those born into poverty or marginalized groups, a quality education was the great equalizer. Their free, public education not only put them on a boat and but also equipped them to navigate the rising tides of opportunity. From 1950 to 1980, most boats rose and intergenerational mobility increased. But ...