The Guide to Curriculum in Education illuminates how four commonplaces of curriculum--subject matter, teachers, learners, and milieu--are interdependent and interconnected in curriculum making and the ties between and controversies over public debate, policy making, university scholarship, and school practice in defining and developing curricula. Complex traditions of curriculum scholarship are traced to illuminate curriculum ideas, issues, perspectives, and possibilities. A major goal is to highlight and explicate how subject matter, teachers, learners, and context or environment are interdependent and interconnected in decision-making processes that involve local and state school boards and government agencies, educational institutions, and curriculum stakeholders at all levels. Key Features: • Organized around four parts as articulated by curriculum scholar Joseph J. Schwab: subject matter, teachers, learners, and milieu • Brief, objective chapters of 5,000 words each provide student readers with more depth than found in an encyclopedia entry • Chapters focus on key contemporary concerns and provide Further Reading suggestions for students wishing to explore a topic in more detail • The Guide focuses on 55 topical chapters organized in four parts: Subject Matter as Curriculum, Teachers as Curriculum, Students as Curriculum, and Milieu as Curriculum This guide will serve as a general, non-technical resource for students and researchers within education programs who seek to better understand the four commonplaces of curriculum and how it influences various aspects within the field of education.

High-Stakes Testing and the Evaluation of Teachers

High-Stakes Testing and the Evaluation of Teachers

High-stakes testing and the evaluation of teachers
Wayne Au

In many countries around the world, and especially in the United States, high-stakes standardized testing has become the central tool used to measure performance in publicly funded schools. The growth in the use of these tests comes as part of an education reform movement to create systems of “accountability” based upon test score improvement. This is part of an education reform movement that also generally includes support for charter schools, alternative certification for teachers, the closing of underperforming schools, and the challenging of teachers’ unions and teacher tenure as part of a vision for restructuring public education within a model of privatized, free-market competition. In the United States in particular, ...

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